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Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction

Electron Techniques

  1. Shuji Hasegawa

Published Online: 12 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471266965.com139

Characterization of Materials

Characterization of Materials

How to Cite

Hasegawa, S. 2012. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction. Characterization of Materials. 1–14.

Author Information

  1. Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 OCT 2012


The fundamentals, experimental techniques, and practical aspects of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are described with some examples of observations. Actual samples that we deal with in experiments are in many cases far from ideal ones; the surfaces are not perfectly single-crystalline with infinitely large domains, or not atomically flat. The RHEED patterns are then modified from the theoretical ones for ideal samples. Inversely, from such modifications in the patterns, we can obtain various kinds of information on the atomic structures of surfaces and thin films. Examples of RHEED analyses presented here include monitoring structural phase transitions and epitaxial growth of atomic layers. RHEED has advantages in observing such dynamical phenomena of structure changes.


  • Ewald sphere;
  • surface reconstruction;
  • RHEED intensity oscillation;
  • rocking curve;
  • superlattice spot;
  • specular spot;
  • Laue zone;
  • Weissenberg RHEED