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Ultrasonic Atomic Force Microscopy

Scanning Probe Techniques

  1. Kazushi Yamanaka,
  2. Toshihiro Tsuji

Published Online: 12 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471266965.com155

Characterization of Materials

Characterization of Materials

How to Cite

Yamanaka, K. and Tsuji, T. 2012. Ultrasonic Atomic Force Microscopy. Characterization of Materials. 1–11.

Author Information

  1. Department of Material Processing, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 OCT 2012


For the development of advanced electronic and mechanical devices on the micro- and nanoscale, there is an increasing need for the characterization of elasticity and subsurface defects. As a useful method, principle, implementation, and applications of ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM) and related methods for elastic materials characterization are described. It measures the contact stiffness from the resonance frequency of cantilever with the tip in contact with the sample surface. We focus on the concept of effective enhancement of the cantilever stiffness caused by the inertia of a soft cantilever at or above the contact resonance frequency. By virtue of this effect, new findings on elasticity of materials were achieved by many groups so far. Relation between UAFM and ordinary atomic force microscopy (AFM) is explained in detail. Also, lateral modulation atomic force microscopy (LM-AFM) with application to nanotribology is explained.


  • atomic force microscopy;
  • nanotechnology;
  • elasticity;
  • ultrasonics;
  • defects;
  • contact resonance;
  • contact stiffness;
  • graphene;
  • delamination