Standard Article

Solid-State Polymerization

  1. S. N. Vouyiouka,
  2. C. D. Papaspyrides

Published Online: 15 DEC 2011

DOI: 10.1002/0471440264.pst546

Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology

Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology

How to Cite

Vouyiouka, S. N. and Papaspyrides, C. D. 2011. Solid-State Polymerization. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. .

Author Information

  1. National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2011


Solid-state polymerization (SSP) comprises a bulk polymerization technique industrially applied for step-growth polymers. It involves heating the starting material (crystalline monomer or prepolymer) in an inert atmosphere or under vacuum, at a temperature below its melting point, permitting the initiation and propagation of typical polymerization reactions. Both chemical and physical steps occur during an SSP process, namely chemical reactions, reactive chain end movement in the amorphous phase, and condensate removal through diffusion. These phenomena are herewith discussed and correlated to operational variables, such as reaction temperature, initial stoichiometry and crystallinity, reacting particles size, condensate content in the surroundings, catalyst's presence. Equipment requirements and pertinent assemblies are also presented, and SSP of the most important polyamides and polyesters is summarized.


  • solid-state polymerization (SSP);
  • direst SSP;
  • post-SSP, SSP parameters;
  • SSP mechanisms