10. Functionally Graded Materials

  1. James K. Wessel Editor in chief
  1. Ivar E. Reimanis

Published Online: 8 JUN 2004

DOI: 10.1002/0471465186.ch10

Handbook of Advanced Materials: Enabling New Designs

Handbook of Advanced Materials: Enabling New Designs

How to Cite

Reimanis, I. E. (2004) Functionally Graded Materials, in Handbook of Advanced Materials: Enabling New Designs (ed J. K. Wessel), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471465186.ch10

Editor Information

  1. Wessel & Associates, 127 Westview Lane, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, USA

Author Information

  1. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 JUN 2004
  2. Published Print: 16 APR 2004

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471454755

Online ISBN: 9780471465188



  • aerospace;
  • ceramics;
  • composites;
  • coatings;
  • finite element analysis;
  • pistons;
  • turbines;
  • fibers;
  • glass;
  • joining/joints;
  • medical;
  • metals;
  • steels;
  • titanium;
  • molybdenum disulfide;
  • monomer;
  • plastics;
  • hot isostatic pressing;
  • maching/grinding;
  • processes;
  • physical vapor deposition;
  • powder metallurgy;
  • properties


Functionally graded materials are materials that comprise a spatial gradation in structure and/or composition, tailored for a specific performance or function. They are most beneficial when a component requires diverse and sometimes seemingly contradictory properties. Examples include coated or cladded materials that retain the desired properties of the bulk substrate while acquiring new desired surface properties. The author describes several examples of applications and why functionally grade materials are used. Designers need to consider functionally graded materials whenever they need properties not attained in a single material.