4. σ-Bonded Metals and Metal–Metal Bonds in the Polymer Framework

  1. Alaa S. Abd-El-Aziz1,
  2. Charles E. Carraher Jr.2,
  3. Charles U. Pittman Jr.3,
  4. John E. Sheats4 and
  5. Martel Zeldin5

Published Online: 30 SEP 2003

DOI: 10.1002/047146659X.ch4

Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements: A Half-Century of Metal- and Metalloid-Containing Polymers, Volume 1

Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements: A Half-Century of Metal- and Metalloid-Containing Polymers, Volume 1

How to Cite

Abd-El-Aziz, A. S., Carraher, C. E., Pittman, C. U., Sheats, J. E. and Zeldin, M. (2003) σ-Bonded Metals and Metal–Metal Bonds in the Polymer Framework, in Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements: A Half-Century of Metal- and Metalloid-Containing Polymers, Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/047146659X.ch4

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemistry, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA

  3. 3

    Department of Chemistry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, USA

  4. 4

    Department of Chemistry, Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, USA

  5. 5

    Department of Chemistry, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 SEP 2003
  2. Published Print: 5 SEP 2003

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471458326

Online ISBN: 9780471466598

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Keywords:

  • sigma-bonded metal polymers (macromolecules);
  • metal-metal bonded polymers (macromolecules);
  • metal acetylides;
  • metallacyclopentadienes;
  • metal-aryl polymers;
  • star polymers (macromolecules);
  • dendrimers

Summary

Metal atoms have been incorporated into macromolecular structures utilizing σ bonding. While the “primary” bonding occurs via σ bonding, π bonding is also often present. The metal may be attached to the macromolecular structure via σ bonding to (most commonly) carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as well as metal to metal bonding. Again, the formation of σ-bond linkages has been accomplished through a wide range of reactions including addition and condensation. Many of these materials show non-linear optical, electrical conducting and semi-conducting, and liquid crystal properties. As with many of the other metal-containing polymers, there is an emphasis in the creation of star and dendrimer structures generally because such structures may allow the metal-atom sites to function somewhat independently for various purposes such as catalytic and sensing.