Assessment of Groundwater Quality in District Hardwar, Uttaranchal, India
Ground Water Hydrology
Published Online: 15 APR 2005
Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How to Cite
Jain, C. K. 2005. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in District Hardwar, Uttaranchal, India. Water Encyclopedia. 5:192–204.
- Published Online: 15 APR 2005
The groundwater quality of District Hardwar in the state of Uttaranchal (India) has been assessed to see the suitability of groundwater for domestic use. Forty-eight groundwater samples from shallow and deep aquifers were collected each during pre- and postmonsoon seasons during the year 2002. Various water quality constituents, pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, fluoride, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms were determined. The data were analyzed with reference to BIS and WHO standards, and hydrochemical facies were determined. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeded the desirable limit of 500 mg/L in about 25% of the samples analyzed, but the values were well within the maximum permissible limit of 2000 mg/L. The alkalinity exceeded the desirable limit of 200 mg/L in about 50% of the samples, but these were also within the maximum permissible limit of 600 mg/L. From the hardness viewpoint, about 80–85% of the samples were within the desirable limits. One sample of the study area exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 100 mg/L for nitrate. Other constituents such as chloride, sulphate, and fluoride were within the desirable limits. The bacteriological analysis of the groundwater samples indicated bacterial contamination in about 40% of the samples analyzed. Inadequate maintenance of hand pumps, improper sanitation, and unhygienic conditions around the structure may be responsible for bacterial contamination in groundwater of the region and is a cause of concern. It is recommended that the water drawn from such sources be properly disinfected before being used for drinking and other domestic purposes. The grouping of samples according to their hydrochemical facies indicates that all the samples of the study area fall under Ca–Mg–HCO3 hydrochemical facies.
- groundwater quality;
- hydrochemical facies;
- Chadha's diagram;
- bacterial contamination