Standard Article

Energy Dissipation

Industrial Water Supply

  1. T. R. Bott

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.iw46

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Bott, T. R. 2005. Energy Dissipation. Water Encyclopedia. 1:558–560.

Author Information

  1. University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005


Many process industries, such as oil refining or chemical manufacture, need to cool products or intermediate streams that may be either liquids or gases, before storage or further processing. To conserve heat and hence costs, it is usual to transfer as much heat energy as possible from an outgoing “hot” stream to an incoming cold stream or intermediate. However as the temperature of the “hot” stream is reduced, there comes a point where it is no longer economical or feasible to reduce the temperature of the stream to be cooled by further interchange of heat. As the temperature of the “hot” stream approaches the temperature of the incoming stream, the temperature driving force for heat transfer is reduced so that a relatively large heat transfer area is required to complete the cooling process. In general, naturally occurring water has a relatively low temperature and because there is so much of it in the world—in seas, lakes, rivers, canals, and boreholes—water is used as a universal cooling medium. The increasing world shortage of water, however, requires effective water management to conserve supplies and to protect the environment.


  • cooling water;
  • cooling water systems;
  • cooling tower;
  • water treatment;
  • water loss;
  • makeup