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Chlorine and Chlorine Residuals

Municipal Water Supply

  1. S. Rajagopal1,
  2. G. Van Der Velde1,
  3. V. P. Venugopalan2,
  4. H. A. Jenner3

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.mw1860

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Rajagopal, S., Van Der Velde, G., Venugopalan, V. P. and Jenner, H. A. 2005. Chlorine and Chlorine Residuals. Water Encyclopedia. 1:127–131.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, India

  3. 3

    KEMA Power Generation and Sustainables, Arnhem, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Chlorine is a very commonly used biocide, widely employed for drinking water disinfection and cooling water treatment in industries. Being a strong oxidant, it involves itself in several reactions with a number of oxidizable substances present in water. Consequently, chemistry of chlorination in water is very complex and involves many reaction products. This chapter gives a brief account of the various reactions, their products (compounds as well as ionic species), and mentions about the analytical methods used for their measurement.


  • chlorine residual;
  • chlorine;
  • chlorine demand;
  • chloramines;
  • chloroorganics;
  • total residual oxidant