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Quantification of Anoxia and Hypoxia in Water Bodies


  1. Gertrud K. Nürnberg

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.oc128

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Nürnberg, G. K. 2005. Quantification of Anoxia and Hypoxia in Water Bodies. Water Encyclopedia. 4:64–69.

Author Information

  1. Freshwater Research, Baysville, Ontario, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005


Hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen, DO, concentration below saturation) are widely spread in freshwater and saline environments. Especially in recent years, anthropogenic impacts have led to severe increases in estuarine and coastal anoxia [e.g., Gulf of Mexico and European coast-lines]. Diaz describes 44 marine areas of moderate to severe hypoxia worldwide. Hypoxia and anoxia (lack of oxygen or zero concentration of DO) may even be more established in the freshwater environment, where it can occur naturally in lakes or not and where recent increases in organic and nutrient loading and changes in water flow have increased oxygen depletion in lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers.


  • quantification of anoxia and hypoxia;
  • oxygen depletion;
  • oxygen deficit;
  • lakes;
  • reservoirs;
  • marine bays;
  • oxygen standards or criteria or guidelines;
  • TMDL-total maximum daily loads;
  • climate change