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Regulatory Issues and Remediation: Risk, Costs, and Benefits

Water Law and Economics

  1. David B. Vance1,
  2. James A. Jacobs2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.wl1501

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Vance, D. B. and Jacobs, J. A. 2005. Regulatory Issues and Remediation: Risk, Costs, and Benefits. Water Encyclopedia. 4:674–676.

Author Information

  1. 1

    ARCADIS, Midland, Texas

  2. 2

    Environmental Bio-Systems, Inc., Mill Valley, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Major regulatory changes have occurred over the past decade regarding enforcement and cleanup standards. These changes have occurred in part, because of the realization that enormous financial and human resources were being spent on the remediation of properties with low concentrations of residual fuel hydrocarbon (primarily gasoline and diesel) contamination with low impact to human receptors. A major report from a national laboratory in 1995 changed the regulatory approach to focus attention on the risk benefits and exposure pathways associated with subsurface fuel contamination. Risked based decision making takes into account the risk, costs, and benefits when evaluating regulatory approaches to remediation.


  • abiotic degradation;
  • cleanup standards;
  • diffusion processes;
  • enforcement;
  • enhanced bioremediation;
  • environmental screening level (ESL) lookup charts;
  • exposure pathways;
  • LLNL study;
  • natural bioattenuation;
  • regulatory issues;
  • risked based closure;
  • risked based decision making;
  • risked based corrective action (RBCA);
  • risk-based screening level (RBSL)