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Cartridge Filters for Iron Removal

Water Quality Control

  1. D.V. Vayenas,
  2. G. Lyberatos

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.wq156

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Vayenas, D. and Lyberatos, G. 2005. Cartridge Filters for Iron Removal. Water Encyclopedia. 2:152–155.

Author Information

  1. University of Ioannina, Agrinio, Greece

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


The presence of iron in a water supply at concentrations exceeding the secondary drinking water standards of 0.2 mg/L is undesirable for aesthetic and operating reasons. Groundwater iron is in its ferrous state in the deeper layers of some water reserves that lack oxygen. Aeration followed by solid–liquid separation is the most commonly used physicochemical treatment method for iron removal. The rates of ferrous iron oxidation may be increased through the action of microorganisms. There are several genera of bacteria that oxidize dissolved iron by different mechanisms under specific conditions of pH and oxidation potential. The presence of ammonia and manganese may inhibit biological iron removal. The engineering systems that have been developed for biological iron removal can be classified based on the type of water flow and on aeration into pressurized filters, gravity-flow units, and trickling filters. Cartridge filters combine physicochemical and biological iron removal. The type of the filter which should be used in each case depends on the physicochemical water characteristics, iron concentration, volumetric flow rate, and costs.


  • biological;
  • physicochemical;
  • iron removal;
  • cartridge filters;
  • pressurized filters;
  • gravity-flow units;
  • trickling filters;
  • potable water