Standard Article


Water Quality Control

  1. Michael P. Dziewatkoski

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.wq563

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Dziewatkoski, M. P. 2005. pH. Water Encyclopedia. 2:294–299.

Author Information

  1. Mettler-Toledo Process Analytical, Woburn, Massachusetts

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005


Some chemical compounds, when dissolved in water, dissociate to yield hydrogen ions (H+, e.g., protons) and are called acids. Other compounds called bases yield hydroxide ions (OH), when dissolved in water. The relative strength of an acid or base is related to the degree of dissociation that the compound undergoes. A strong acid is one that dissociates completely to yield a relatively large number of hydrogen ions, whereas the strong base is a compound that yields a relatively large number of hydroxide ions.


  • pH measurement;
  • water analysis;
  • chemical measurement;
  • pH electrodes;
  • ion selective field effect transistor;
  • pH buffers;
  • sensors