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Assessment of Ecological Effects in Water-Limited Environments

Water Resource Development and Management

  1. Randall T. Ryti,
  2. James T. Markweise

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.wr3

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Ryti, R. T. and Markweise, J. T. 2005. Assessment of Ecological Effects in Water-Limited Environments. Water Encyclopedia. 2:516–518.

Author Information

  1. Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005


We consider that water-limited environments include arid lands that have less than 250 millimeters (10 inches) of annual precipitation and semiarid lands that have annual precipitation between 250 and 500 millimeters. This paper discusses the characteristics of arid and semiarid environments, approaches for evaluating the potential ecological impacts from anthropogenic contaminant sources, and the issues that make such assessments complex in arid and semiarid environments.


  • arid;
  • assessment end points;
  • contaminants;
  • ecological risk;
  • effluent;
  • scale;
  • semiarid;
  • stressors