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Waste Water Treatment

  1. Absar A. Kazmi

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.ww186

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Kazmi, A. A. 2005. Sewage. Water Encyclopedia. 1:828–830.

Author Information

  1. Nishihara Environment Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005


When human feces and urine are diluted with flushing water or other gray water (such as from washing, bathing, and cleansing activities), it becomes sewage, domestic wastewater, or sanitary wastewater. In other words, from the standpoint of sources of generation, sewage or domestic wastewater may be defined as a combination of the liquid- or water-carried wastes from residences, institutions, and commercial and industrial establishments, together with such groundwater, surface water, and stormwater as may be present. Sewage can be classified into two types:

  • Domestic sewage or domestic wastewater: human excrement, waterborne human excretion, or water-carried wastes from liquid or nonliquid culinary purposes, washing, cleansing, laundering, food processing, or ice production;

  • Municipal sewage or municipal wastewater: municipal liquid waste originating primarily from residences, but may include contributions from

    1. holding tanks in recreational vehicles, boats, and houseboats;

    2. commercial, institutional, and industrial sources; and

    3. inflow and infiltration.


  • biodegradable organics;
  • domestic wastewater;
  • municipal wastewater;
  • on-site system;
  • sewage treatment