Standard Article

Degradation of Chloro-Organics and Hydrocarbons

Waste Water Treatment

  1. Frank J. Castaldi

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047147844X.ww61

Water Encyclopedia

Water Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Castaldi, F. J. 2005. Degradation of Chloro-Organics and Hydrocarbons. Water Encyclopedia. 1:688–695.

Author Information

  1. Brown and Coldwell, Austin, Texas

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005

Abstract

Chloro-organics include chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The chemical characteristics of chlorinated aromatic compounds cover a range of compounds that include chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, chloroanilines, polychlorinated biphenyls, and many pesticides. Chlorinated aliphatic compounds make up a major portion of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Substances List of halogenated volatile constituents.

The potential and extent of substance degradation of each of these compound groups differs with the complexity of the compound and the nature of the aquatic environment. The principal focus of this discussion is that of microbial degradation in water and wastewater.

Chlorinated aromatic compounds are typically produced for direct commercial use and as chemical intermediates during chemical synthesis. They are used in industrial operations to produce dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, synthetic rubbers, solvents, cleaners, deodorants, pigments, and related formulations.

Keywords:

  • chloro-organics;
  • alicyclic hydrocarbons;
  • aromatic hydrocarbons;
  • aliphatic hydrocarbons;
  • ring cleavage;
  • biodegradation;
  • dehalogenation;
  • microbial consortium;
  • hydroxylation;
  • chloro-substituted;
  • benzene;
  • phenol;
  • microbial transformation;
  • abiotic transformation;
  • petroleum