9. Metabolic Transformation

  1. Ian J. Tinsley

Published Online: 2 JUN 2004

DOI: 10.1002/047166717X.ch9

Chemical Concepts in Pollutant Behavior

Chemical Concepts in Pollutant Behavior

How to Cite

Tinsley, I. J. (2004) Metabolic Transformation, in Chemical Concepts in Pollutant Behavior, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/047166717X.ch9

Author Information

  1. Oregon State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 2 JUN 2004
  2. Published Print: 1 JUN 2004

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471095255

Online ISBN: 9780471667179

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Keywords:

  • enzymes;
  • enzyme kinetics;
  • phase I and II reactions;
  • P450 mono-oxygenases;
  • conjugation reactions;
  • glutathione;
  • enzyme induction;
  • soil half lives;
  • adaptation;
  • soil moisture;
  • pH and composition;
  • substrate concentration;
  • aging of residues;
  • chiral effects;
  • groundwater contamination

Summary

Organisms are able to metabolize almost any organic compound they “see” using a diverse complement of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. These are summarized along with some metabolic processes unique to plants. Kinetic features of enzyme catalysis are described. Breakdown rates in soil are of particular significance to overall environmental behavior and variables that influence the activity of microorganisms and availability are reviewed. These would include induction of activity through multiple applications, pH, temperature, soil pH and composition, aging, chiral specificity. Contamination of groundwater is related to breakdown rates.