Standard Article


  1. David Hettinga

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047167849X.bio037

Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products

Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products

How to Cite

Hettinga, D. 2005. Butter. Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 2:1.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Butter is one of the oldest forms of preserving fat components of milk. Its manufacture dates back to some of the earliest historical records.

The evolution of the art of buttermaking has been associated with the development and use of equipment. The construction of creaming and buttermaking equipment in the eighteenth century led to the appearance of the barrel churn. Creaming was at first done by a method called shallow pan. This was followed by a deep-setting system. This shortened process time and produced a better quality cream. In 1879, cream separators for fully continuous operation were produced. The Babcock test assisted in the development of the butter industry. This test determines the percentage of fat in milk and cream. Other developments included the use of pasteurization, the use of pure cultures of lactic acid and bacteria, and the use of refrigeration.

Multiple butter fat products include butter oils, anhydrous butter fat, butter fat-vegetable oils, and fractionated butter fats. Preservation of butter fat today involves the processing of butter fat to anhydrous butter oil. Shelf life is improved because the butter oil is hermetically packaged under nitrogen.

Recent times have seen a decline in the consumption of butter. This decline contradicts all historical patterns for butter fat consumption. Reasons for decline are noted. This chapter provides data on chemical composition, marketing, technology, processing, quality, legal restrictions, and uses.


  • butter;
  • butter fat products;
  • fatty acids;
  • milkfat modification;
  • cholesterol;
  • grades;
  • quality control;
  • lipase activity;
  • low fat;
  • spreadability;
  • packaging;
  • ghee;
  • chemical composition