Chapter 19. Disease Transmission

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch19

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) Disease Transmission, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch19

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431



  • disease transmission;
  • infection;
  • pathogen;
  • entry;
  • wastewater;
  • sludge;
  • foam;
  • vectors;
  • contaminated materials


For a pathogen to cause disease (damage) in a host, six steps of pathogenesis must be satisfied. In the first step, transmission, the pathogen must leave an infected individual and be transported to a noninfected individual. This may be accomplished through wastewater, sludge, bioaerosol, foam, vectors, and contaminated materials.