Chapter 2. History

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch2

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) History, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch2

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431



  • history;
  • wastewater collection;
  • treatment systems;
  • activated sludge process


Over the last 150 years wastewater collection and treatment systems have been designed and built for three purposes: (1) to provide clean water for cities undergoing rapid industrialization, (2) to protect the quality of the waters receiving the effluent from the treatment plant, and (3) to control the outbreaks of communicable diseases. Outbreaks of communicable diseases often were related to poor sanitary conditions.