Chapter 20. The Body's Defenses

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch20

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) The Body's Defenses, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch20

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431



  • body's defenses;
  • nonspecific defenses;
  • skin;
  • eyes;
  • ears;
  • respiratory system;
  • digestive tract;
  • lymphatic system


Although infections from specific pathogenic agents are not common, wastewater personnel, especially during the first few years of employment, experience some increased symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract illness. For any illness or disease to occur, pathogens must overcome the body's defenses.