Chapter 24. Hygiene Measures and Protective Equipment

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch24

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) Hygiene Measures and Protective Equipment, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch24

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431

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Keywords:

  • hygiene measures;
  • protective equipment;
  • antimicrobial chemical agents;
  • automation;
  • precautions;
  • restrictions;
  • first aid;
  • proper sampling practices;
  • protective clothing;
  • training;
  • immunization

Summary

There are three distinct stages of pathogen transmission. First, the pathogen must leave an infected individual or host. The pathogen may be found in feces, urine, or blood. Second, the pathogen must be transmitted to a new individual or host. The pathogen may be transmitted to a new individual or host by aerosoles, contaminated material, sludge, vector, or wastewater. Third, the pathogen must enter the new individual or host.