Chapter 5. Viruses

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch5

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) Viruses, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch5

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431



  • viruses;
  • core;
  • cover;
  • mutation;
  • RNA;
  • DNA;
  • bird flu virus


Viruses are ultramicroscopic agents. They cannot be observed with a conventional microscope. They must be observed with an electron microscope. Viruses are inert or nonliving and lack mobility. Viruses are diverse in structure. There are two basic physical components that make up all viruses. These components are genetic material (core) and a protein coat or capsid (cover).