Chapter 8. West Nile Virus

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch8

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) West Nile Virus, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch8

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431



  • West Nile virus (WNV);
  • disease symptoms;
  • transmission;
  • control measures


West Nile virus (WNV) is common in Africa, western Asia, and the Middle East and recently emerged in North America, where it has spread rapidly across the United States. The virus is carried by birds, particularly crows and jays, and has moved steadily south and west across the United States, following bird migration patterns. The virus represents a significant threat to human and animal health and is considered to be a potentially lethal virus.