Chapter 9. Bacteria

  1. Michael H. Gerardi and
  2. Mel C. Zimmerman

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471710431.ch9

Wastewater Pathogens

Wastewater Pathogens

How to Cite

Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C. (2004) Bacteria, in Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/0471710431.ch9

Author Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 22 OCT 2004

Book Series:

  1. Wastewater Microbiology Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Michael H. Gerardi

Series Editor Information

  1. The Pennsylvania State University, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471206927

Online ISBN: 9780471710431



  • bacteria;
  • bacterial pathogens;
  • diseases;
  • Campylobacter jejuni;
  • spore-forming bacteria


Bacteria are simple, unicellular organisms. Bacteria range in size from 0.1 to 15 µm, and the shape of most bacteria is either rod (bacillus), spherical (coccus), or spiral (spirillium). Bacteria are ubiquitous in nature. They are found in water, soil, organic matter, and living bodies of plants and animals. They have a wide variety of nutritional requirements and may be autotrophic, parasitic, or saprophytic with respect to the manner in which they obtain their nutritional requirements.