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  1. Eric McAdams

Published Online: 14 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0471732877.emd013

Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation

Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation

How to Cite

McAdams, E. 2006. Bioelectrodes. Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation. .

Author Information

  1. University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, Ireland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2006


Good electrode design is not as simple and straightforward a matter as is often assumed, and all electrode designs are not equal in performance for a given application. One must therefore not simply choose an electrode with as conductive a metal plate as possible. Different materials and designs are required for different applications, and it is often best to start with the design of the electrode when developing a new monitoring or stimulation system, rather than leaving it to the end of the project.

Key aspects of biomedical electrode design and performance are reviewed. Historical developments are briefly presented, as many of the early designs are still being used, albeit sometimes in different areas of monitoring or therapy. Ideas for electrode design can also be gleaned from the present state-of-the-art other branches of monitoring or electrotherapy.


  • biomedical electrodes;
  • gels;
  • stimulation;
  • biosignal recording;
  • current density;
  • impedance;
  • skin;
  • artifact;
  • standards