The epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look
Article first published online: 29 JUN 2006
Copyright © 1977 American Cancer Society
Volume 40, Issue 3, pages 1246–1268, September 1977
How to Cite
Wynder, E. L. and Goldsmith, R. (1977), The epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look. Cancer, 40: 1246–1268. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(197709)40:3<1246::AID-CNCR2820400340>3.0.CO;2-5
- Issue published online: 29 JUN 2006
- Article first published online: 29 JUN 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 DEC 1976
- National Cancer Institute. Grant Numbers: NO1-CP-55666, SHP-74-106, CA-17613-01
- American Cancer Society. Grant Number: R88-R.
- Computing Laboratory, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University. Grant Number: (11-1)-3077
A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.