A series of 111 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas was reviewed. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 74 years, and approximately 60% of them were in the second and third decades of life. There was no significant sex predilection. Seventy-two tumors, including 5 that involved multiple skeletal sites, arose in bone. Thirty-eight tumors were found in extraskeletal sites. At initial diagnosis, multifocal involvement, both in bone and in soft tissue, was observed in one case. Roentgenographically, the lesions in bone frequently resembled ordinary chondrosarcomas, showing osteolytic and destructive appearances with stippled calcification. Tumors in extraskeletal sites were almost always identified as calcified masses. Histologically, a combination of cellular zones composed of undifferentiated small cells and chondroid zones typically presented a bimorphic appearance that was virtually pathognomonic in most cases. Ablative surgical treatment seemed to be the procedure of choice. The value of irradiation or chemotherapy (or both) was difficult to assess in the current study. Prognosis for patients with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is usually poor, and long-term follow-up is necessary. In a group of 23 patients from the Mayo Clinic, the 5-year survival rate was 54.6% and the 10-year survival rate was 27.3%. Cancer 57:2444–2453, 1986.