Incidence and survival data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program for the 10-year period 1973–1982 are presented. Childhood cancer incidence rates have remained relatively stable over the last decade. The overall incidence rate increased slightly from 124 to 127 per million children from 1973–1977 to 1978–1982 while rates for leukemias remained unchanged over this same time period at 38 per million for all races combined. Leukemias and lymphomas accounted for 44% of all cancers among white children and 33% among blacks. For all forms of cancer combined, the 5-year relative survival rate was 57% for both whites and blacks. The 5-year relative survival rate exceeded 80% for fibrosarcomas, retinoblastomas, Hodgkin's disease, and gonadal and germ cell tumors. Survival rates for children have shown improvement during the last decade, the most dramatic improvements occurring among patients with leukemia (15% 5-year relative survival in 1967–1973 versus 51% in 1973–1981), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (24% versus 51%), and bone tumors (28% versus 48%). Cancer 58:598-602, 1986.