Neuroendocrine or argyrophil cell carinoma of the cervix has recently been accepted as a distinct clinical-pathological entity. The histologic pattern of these carcinomas is usually poorly differentiated or undifferentiated. Twenty patients with a histologic diagnosis of small cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, or poorly differentiated, adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix were evaluated for neuroendocrine features. The results of studies to detect neurosecretory granules were positive in seven of the 20 cases. Not only small cell carcinomas, but also tumors classified as undifferentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated, adenosquamous carcinoma contained cytoplasmic granules consistent with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix. The prognosis for survival appears poorer for patients having tumors with neurosecretory granules after controlling for stage and histologic grade of the neoplasm.