Because blood groups and hemoglobin concentration have been associated with the risk of the development of some cancers, this study evaluated the significance of ABO and Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration as prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The authors examined all registered primary SCC of buccal and maxillary alveolar mucosa in the Norwegian population between 1963 and 1972. The biopsy specimens from these patients were reevaluated and borderline cases excluded. The remaining 111 cases were included in the study, and features recorded on first admission were included in the survival analyses. ABO and Rhesus blood groups were found in 99 of these patients. Multivariate survival analysis showed that tumor size, hemoglobin concentration, stage, and Rhesus blood groups were significant prognostic factors, but sex, age, treatment, duration of symptoms, ABO blood groups, and clinical appearance of the tumors were not. The prognostic value of Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration has not been previously reported for oral SCC.