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Keywords:

  • breast cancer;
  • endometrial cancer;
  • physical activity;
  • occupation;
  • ovarian cancer

Abstract

Background. A sedentary life style has been consistently associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, but the evidence for its association with breast and other gynecologic cancers is limited.

Methods. Occupational information for 3783 incident patients with cancer (breast, 2736; corpus uteri, 452; and ovary, 595) whose disease was diagnosed during the period 1980–1984 was compared with 1982 census data on employment in Shanghai urban areas. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of these cancers were estimated for each occupational group classified by job titles and physical activity levels.

Results. A significantly increased incidence of breast cancer was found among professionals (SIR = 158), government officials (SIR = 131), and clerical workers (SIR = 143); the incidence was reduced among service workers (SIR = 87) and craftsmen (SIR = 91). Occupational physical activity, as measured by sitting time and energy expenditure, was inversely related to breast cancer incidence, with SIR of 127–131 for inactive jobs (sedentary or low-energy expenditure) and 79–93 for active jobs (long periods of standing or high energy expenditure). Similar associations, although to a lesser extent, were also seen for cancer of the corpus uteri and ovary.

Conclusions. Women with low physical activity occupations had an increased incidence of cancer of the breast, corpus uteri, and ovary; the incidence was reduced among women with high-activity jobs. These findings were consistent with observations from earlier studies and provided further evidence that physical activity may lower the risk of these female hormone-dependent cancers.