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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 June 2000

Volume 88, Issue 12

Pages 2653–2889

  1. Tribute

    1. Top of page
    2. Tribute
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Arthur I. Holleb, M.D. (pages 2653–2654)

      Robert V. P. Hutter

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2653::AID-CNCR1>3.0.CO;2-X

  2. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Tribute
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
    6. Erratum
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      Artificial neural networks for prostate carcinoma risk assessment : An overview (pages 2655–2660)

      James E. Montie and John T. Wei

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2655::AID-CNCR2>3.0.CO;2-S

      Recent advances in our understanding of prostate carcinoma biology have allowed for improved risk assessments. Future development of programs to prognosticate survival by the International Union Against Cancer and the American Joint Committee on Cancer must go beyond clinical staging to incorporate risk assessment of important prognostic variables for a variety of outcomes.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Tribute
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
    6. Erratum
    1. Anatomic Site

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      Allelic loss is heterogeneous throughout the tumor in colorectal carcinoma (pages 2661–2667)

      Ulrik Lindforss, Hanna Fredholm, Nikos Papadogiannakis, Adel Gad, Henrik Zetterquist and Hans Olivecrona

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2661::AID-CNCR3>3.0.CO;2-Q

      Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 17p and 18q has been described as a potential prognostic marker in colorectal carcinoma, but the LOH status within a colorectal tumor is extensively heterogeneous and varies in a random fashion among different quadrants of the same tumor. Correlating genetic events such as LOH with prognosis must be done cautiously if only minor parts of tumors are investigated.

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      Is heterozygous alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency type PiZ a risk factor for primary liver carcinoma? (pages 2668–2676)

      Hui Zhou, M. Elena Ortiz-Pallardó, Yon Ko and Hans-Peter Fischer

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2668::AID-CNCR4>3.0.CO;2-G

      Based on three large collectives of patients, this study showed an increased risk of primary liver carcinoma development for patients with heterozygous alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency type PiZ.

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      Vinorelbine in elderly patients with inoperable nonsmall cell lung carcinoma : A Phase II study (pages 2677–2685)

      Gianfranco Buccheri and Domenico Ferrigno

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2677::AID-CNCR5>3.0.CO;2-B

      First-line chemotherapy with vinorelbine, used as a single agent, is well tolerated, moderately active, and capable of ensuring relatively long survival for unfit and elderly patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.

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      Mast cell density is associated with angiogenesis and poor prognosis in pulmonary adenocarcinoma (pages 2686–2692)

      Iwao Takanami, Ken Takeuchi and Masao Naruke

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2686::AID-CNCR6>3.0.CO;2-6

      A significant association was found between mast cell density and microvessel density. Mast cell density is a useful prognostic marker in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

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      Analysis of therapeutic and immunologic effects of R24 anti-GD3 monoclonal antibody in 37 patients with metastatic melanoma (pages 2693–2702)

      John M. Kirkwood, Ruth A. Mascari, Howard D. Edington, Michael S. Rabkin, Roger S. Day, Theresa L. Whiteside, Daniel R. Vlock and Janice M. Shipe-Spotloe

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2693::AID-CNCR7>3.0.CO;2-3

      Among 37 patients with metastatic melanoma, 1 complete response that lasted 2 years and 1 partial response that lasted 2 months occurred when R24 anti-GD3 monoclonal antibody was given at a dose of 1 mg/M2/day. The limited number of clinical responses observed in this trial hampered the correlation of antitumor and immune parameters but provided a rational foundation for the future evaluation of antiganglioside antibodies.

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      Pigmentary traits, modalities of sun reaction, history of sunburns, and melanocytic nevi as risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma in the Italian population : Results of a collaborative case-control study (pages 2703–2710)

      Luigi Naldi, G. Lorenzo Imberti, Fabio Parazzini, Silvano Gallus, Carlo La Vecchia and The Oncology Cooperative Group of the Italian Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED)

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2703::AID-CNCR8>3.0.CO;2-Q

      This Italian case-control study confirms the importance of selected pigmentary traits, propensity to sunburn, history of sunburns before age 15 years, and number of melanocytic nevi in assessing the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

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      Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans : A clinicopathologic analysis of patients treated and followed at a single institution (pages 2711–2720)

      Wilbur B. Bowne, Cristina R. Antonescu, Denis H. Y. Leung, Steven C. Katz, William G. Hawkins, James M. Woodruff, Murray F. Brennan and Jonathan J. Lewis

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2711::AID-CNCR9>3.0.CO;2-M

      The authors report on the analysis of clinicopathologic factors associated with clinical outcome in patients with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans who were treated at a single institution. Management strategies are discussed.

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      A comparison of staging systems for localized extremity soft tissue sarcoma (pages 2721–2730)

      Jay S. Wunder, John H. Healey, Aileen M. Davis and Murray F. Brennan

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2721::AID-CNCR10>3.0.CO;2-D

      Staging systems for extremity soft tissue sarcoma that include tumor depth, grade, and size as prognostic factors are the most predictive of systemic relapse and should be used to identify high risk patients suitable for adjuvant chemotherapy trials.

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      Vinorelbine combined with paclitaxel infused over 96 hours (VI-TA-96) for patients with metastatic breast carcinoma (pages 2731–2738)

      Giorgio Cocconi, Andrea Mambrini, Maria Quarta, Giovanna Vasini, Maria Angela Bella, Francesco Ferrozzi and Myriam Debora Beretta

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2731::AID-CNCR11>3.0.CO;2-9

      In this Phase I–II study, the combination of vinorelbine and paclitaxel was administered on a 96-hour continuous infusion schedule to 50 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma who were pretreated with different chemotherapies. A high rate of objective response was achieved, with acceptable toxicity. This combination and schedule can be adopted in clinical practice as being particularly suitable for patients already pretreated with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil and/or anthracycline in the adjuvant setting.

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      Bilateral breast carcinoma : Risk factors and outcomes for patients with synchronous and metachronous disease (pages 2739–2750)

      Dwight E. Heron, Lydia T. Komarnicky, Terry Hyslop, Gordon F. Schwartz and Carl M. Mansfield

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2739::AID-CNCR12>3.0.CO;2-J

      Synchronous bilateral breast carcinoma patients may have a poor rate of disease free survival because of an increased likelihood of developing distant metastasis.

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      Android obesity at diagnosis and breast carcinoma survival : Evaluation of the effects of anthropometric variables at diagnosis, including body composition and body fat distribution and weight gain during life span, and survival from breast carcinoma (pages 2751–2757)

      Nagi B. Kumar, Alan Cantor, Kathy Allen and Charles E. Cox

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2751::AID-CNCR13>3.0.CO;2-1

      The results of the current study indicate that a predominant android obesity at diagnosis and weight at age 30 years, which are indicative of adult weight gain, are 2 factors that are important predictors of survival as well as of risk of developing breast carcinoma. These all are modifiable risk factors and thus appear to have the greatest implication for the prevention of disease recurrence and death of breast carcinoma patients.

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      Negative immunomagnetic purging of peripheral blood stem cell harvests from breast carcinoma patients reduces tumor cell contamination while not affecting hematopoietic recovery (pages 2758–2765)

      Paolo Pedrazzoli, Annalisa Lanza, Manuela Battaglia, Gian Antonio Da Prada, Alberto Zambelli, Cesare Perotti, Luisa Ponchio, Laura Salvaneschi and Gioacchino Robustelli della Cuna

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2758::AID-CNCR14>3.0.CO;2-E

      The current study shows the feasibility of a large-scale negative immunomagnetic purging of breast carcinoma cells contaminating peripheral blood stem cell harvests. To the authors' knowledge it also is the first study to document that stem cell collections undergoing ex vivo manipulations aimed at removing epithelial cells can be reinfused safely to myeloablated patients and allow a prompt hematopoietic reconstitution.

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      Expression of p27 and p53 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy alone : Radiotherapeutic effect and prognosis (pages 2766–2773)

      Kuniyuki Oka, Yoshiyuki Suzuki and Takashi Nakano

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2766::AID-CNCR15>3.0.CO;2-G

      High p27 expression and low p53 expression are associated with good prognosis in cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone. The p27 and p53 indices show inverse patterns of change in the period from before RT to after RT with 27 grays (Gy). RT increases p53 expression and p53 was found to change from the wild-type before RT into the mutant-type after RT with 27 Gy.

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      Immunohistochemical staining of GLUT1 in benign, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial epithelia (pages 2774–2781)

      Beverly Y. Wang, Tamara Kalir, Edmond Sabo, David E. Sherman, Carmel Cohen and David E. Burstein

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2774::AID-CNCR16>3.0.CO;2-I

      GLUT1 immunostained 100% of endometrial adenocarcinomas but failed to stain benign endometrium as well as simple and complex hyperplasia. Positive staining of atypical hyperplasias suggests a possible diagnostic means of distinguishing high risk from low risk, premalignant, endometrial epithelial lesions.

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      Pathologic variables and adjuvant therapy as predictors of recurrence and survival for patients with surgically evaluated carcinosarcoma of the uterus (pages 2782–2786)

      S. Diane Yamada, Robert A. Burger, Wendy R. Brewster, Deborah Anton, Matthew F. Kohler and Bradley J. Monk

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2782::AID-CNCR17>3.0.CO;2-K

      Pathologic variables comprising stage of disease in endometrial carcinoma can be applied to carcinosarcoma and are predictive of recurrence and survival.

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      Identification and characterization of circulating prostate carcinoma cells (pages 2787–2795)

      Zheng-Pin Wang, Mario A. Eisenberger, Michael A. Carducci, Alan W. Partin, Howard I. Scher and Paul O. P. Ts'o

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2787::AID-CNCR18>3.0.CO;2-2

      A descriptive method is presented for the identification and characterization of circulating prostate carcinoma cells in the blood based on their cytologic and morphologic characteristics. In addition, a hypothesis describing a circulating microtumor and its role in the formation of metastasis is presented.

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      Brachytherapy : Results of two different therapy strategies for patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme (pages 2796–2802)

      R. W. Koot, M. Maarouf, M. C. C. M. Hulshof, J. Voges, H. Treuer, C. Koedooder, V. Sturm and D. A. Bosch

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2796::AID-CNCR19>3.0.CO;2-1

      The results of two different strategies of brachytherapy for the treatment of patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme are presented. Despite these differences, the survival of matched patients was equal with both strategies, and was approximately 6 months longer than that of the control group.

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      Progression of eIF4E gene amplification and overexpression in benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck (pages 2803–2810)

      M. Scott Haydon, J. David Googe, Donald S. Sorrells, G. E. Ghali and Benjamin D. L. Li

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2803::AID-CNCR20>3.0.CO;2-5

      Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays a critical role in selecting mRNAs for protein synthesis and its overexpression impacts on the up-regulation of a number of known oncoproteins. When benign tissues, benign tumors, and invasive carcinoma of the head and neck regions were compared, there was progression of the degree of eIF4E gene amplification and overexpression.

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      Estimation of growth rate in patients with head and neck paragangliomas influences the treatment proposal (pages 2811–2816)

      Jeroen C. Jansen, Rene van den Berg, Alex Kuiper, Andel G. L. van der Mey, Ailko H. Zwinderman and Cees J. Cornelisse

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2811::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-7

      The absence of growth in 40% of extraadrenal paragangliomas of the head and neck justifies a period of radiologic follow-up before treatment.

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      Prevalence, predictive factors, and screening for psychologic distress in patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (pages 2817–2823)

      Akira Kugaya, Tatsuo Akechi, Toru Okuyama, Tomohito Nakano, Ichiro Mikami, Hitoshi Okamura and Yosuke Uchitomi

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2817::AID-CNCR22>3.0.CO;2-N

      Patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer who have advanced disease or live alone are at high risk of psychologic distress. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale is a useful instrument to screen for their distress.

    21. General Topic

      Cancer Screening
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      Organizational systems used by California capitated medical groups and independent practice associations to increase cancer screening (pages 2824–2831)

      Jennifer L. Malin, Katherine Kahn, Gareth Dulai, Melissa M. Farmer, Jeffrey Rideout, Lisa Payne Simon and Patricia A. Ganz

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2824::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-S

      According to a survey of their medical directors, medical groups and independent practice associations in a large California network model health maintenance organization reported widespread use of guidelines and office systems to improve their cancer screening rates.

    22. Lymphedema
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      A randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial comparing multilayer bandaging followed by hosiery versus hosiery alone in the treatment of patients with lymphedema of the limb (pages 2832–2837)

      Caroline M. A. Badger, Janet L. Peacock and Peter S. Mortimer

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2832::AID-CNCR24>3.0.CO;2-U

      Multilayer bandaging as an initial phase of lymphedema treatment followed by hosiery achieves greater and more sustained (> 6 months) limb volume reduction than hosiery alone.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      A Phase I dose escalation of combination chemotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage–colony stimulating factor in patients with neuroblastoma (pages 2838–2844)

      M. Carmen Fernandez, Mark D. Krailo, Robert R. Gerbing and Katherine K. Matthay

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2838::AID-CNCR25>3.0.CO;2-9

      An effective combination chemotherapy for recurrent neuroblastoma was administered to 29 patients followed by granulocyte-macrophage–colony stimulating factor. The objective of the current study was to use the cytokine to decrease hematologic toxicity and thus achieve higher dose intensity by increasing the total administered dose as well as by reducing the interval between courses. The maximum tolerated dose of this regimen was reached, with mucositis and myelosuppression being the most common dose-limiting toxicities. The results of the current study show that further dose intensification of this effective four-drug combination is limited even with the addition of growth factor.

    24. You have free access to this content
      The risk for cancer among children of women who underwent in vitro fertilization (pages 2845–2847)

      Liat Lerner-Geva, Amos Toren, Angela Chetrit, Baruch Modan, Mathilda Mandel, Gideon Rechavi and Jehoshuah Dor

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2845::AID-CNCR26>3.0.CO;2-E

      In what the authors believe is a historic prospective cohort study, no cases of pediatric cancer were observed among children of women treated with in vitro fertilization.

    25. You have free access to this content
      Oral administration of cefixime to lower risk febrile neutropenic children with cancer (pages 2848–2852)

      Hugo R. Paganini, Claudia M. Sarkis, Mónica G. De Martino, Pedro A. Zubizarreta, Lidia Casimir, Cristina Fernandez, Ariel A. Armada, María T. Rodriguez-Brieshcke and Roberto Debbag

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2848::AID-CNCR27>3.0.CO;2-2

      In febrile neutropenic children who undergo anticancer therapy and have a lower risk of bacteremia, the efficacy of oral cefixime, administered for 4 days following 72 hours of intravenous ceftriaxone plus amikacin, was similar to that of 7 days of parenteral ceftriaxone plus amikacin.

    26. You have free access to this content
      Pleuropulmonary blastoma : A case report documenting transition from type I (cystic) to type III (solid) (pages 2853–2858)

      James R. Wright Jr.

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2853::AID-CNCR28>3.0.CO;2-D

      This report describes the first documented case to demonstrate transition over time of a type I pleuropulmonary blastoma into type III pleuropulmonary blastoma.

    27. Psychosociology
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      Clinical utility, factor analysis, and further validation of the memorial delirium assessment scale in patients with advanced cancer : Assessing delirium in advanced cancer (pages 2859–2867)

      Peter G. Lawlor, Cheryl Nekolaichuk, Bruno Gagnon, Isabelle L. Mancini, Jose L. Pereira and Eduardo D. Bruera

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2859::AID-CNCR29>3.0.CO;2-T

      The current study shows that the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) factor composition integrates cognitive and neurobehavioral dimensions, consistent with the major recognized clinical features of delirium, and facilitates clinically relevant severity monitoring in cancer patients. The incorporation of observational assessment items and the capacity to prorate certain item scores, both without burden for the patient, enhances the clinical utility of the MDAS in advanced cancer patients with fatigue, dyspnea, and severe delirium.

    28. You have free access to this content
      The schedule of attitudes toward hastened death : Measuring desire for death in terminally ill cancer patients (pages 2868–2875)

      Barry Rosenfeld, William Breitbart, Michele Galietta, Monique Kaim, Julie Funesti-Esch, Hayley Pessin, Christian J. Nelson and Robert Brescia

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2868::AID-CNCR30>3.0.CO;2-K

      The Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death is a valid and reliable measure of desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients. This scale can be utilized in research, addressing factors that might influence patient desire for death or interest in physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia.

  4. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Tribute
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
    6. Erratum
    1. General Topic

      Kerr L. White Institute/American Cancer Society
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      Purchasing oncology services : Summary recommendations (pages 2876–2886)

      Charles B. Cangialose, Angela E. Blair, Joan S. Borchardt, Terri B. Ades, Charles L. Bennett, Kay Dickersin, Dean H. Gesme Jr., I. Craig Henderson, LaMar S. McGinnis Jr., Kathi Mooney, Lee E. Mortenson, Paul Sperduto, William Winkenwerder Jr., David J. Ballard and for the Kerr L. White Institute/ American Cancer Society Task Force on Purchasing Oncology Services

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2876::AID-CNCR31>3.0.CO;2-M

      This article presents 10 recommendations in rank order that purchasers and providers of oncology services can use as a yardstick to evaluate oncology services within health care plans.

    2. World Health Organization
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      World Health Organization classification of tumors (page 2887)

      Paul Kleihues and Leslie H. Sobin

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2887::AID-CNCR32>3.0.CO;2-F

      The World Health Organization announces a new series entitled World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. This continuation of the International Histological Classification of Tumors project will include information on molecular genetics and will cover all tumor sites within the next 5 years.

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Tribute
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
    6. Erratum
    1. General Topic

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      Erratum (pages 2888–2889)

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2888::AID-CNCR33>3.0.CO;2-9

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