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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 June 2001

Volume 91, Issue 12

Pages 2205–2482

  1. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Article
    1. Disease Site

      Blood/Bone Marrow
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      Rapid engraftment after allogeneic transplantation of density-enriched peripheral blood CD34+ cells in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies (pages 2205–2213)

      Thai M. Cao, Claus Kusnierz-Glaz, Frank Valone, Keith E. Stockerl-Goldstein, Wendy W. Hu, Laura Johnston, Karl G. Blume, Samuel Strober and Robert S. Negrin

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2205::AID-CNCR1250>3.0.CO;2-Q

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      Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation utilizing a peripheral blood allograft manipulated via low-density enrichment with a Percoll class gradient was feasible and safe, resulting in rapid engraftment and no occurrence of graft failure in examinable patients. However, the anticipated benefit of enrichment for a CD4−/CD8− double-negative cell population, which in preclinical studies suppressed graft versus host disease (GVHD), was observed in only a few patients, and there was no reduction in the expected incidence of GVHD.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Anemia as an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with cancer : A systematic, quantitative review (pages 2214–2221)

      J. Jaime Caro, Maribel Salas, Alexandra Ward and Glenwood Goss

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2214::AID-CNCR1251>3.0.CO;2-P

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      Anemia is a predictor of survival for patients with cancer independent of the type of malignancy involved, and it must be considered in planning the treatment of these patients.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Methylation of p15 and p16 genes in adult acute leukemia : Lack of prognostic significance (pages 2222–2229)

      Chor S. Chim, Chris Y.Y. Tam, Raymond Liang and Yok L. Kwong

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2222::AID-CNCR1252>3.0.CO;2-R

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      Gene methylation of p15 and p16 was found to lack prognostic significance in adult acute leukemias.

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      Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of regional contrast access as an additional prognostic factor in pediatric osteosarcoma (pages 2230–2237)

      Wilburn E. Reddick, Sihong Wang, Xiaoping Xiong, John O. Glass, Shengjie Wu, Sue C. Kaste, Charles B. Pratt, William H. Meyer and Barry D. Fletcher

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2230::AID-CNCR1253>3.0.CO;2-T

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      Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging estimates of regional contrast access in patients with resectable primary nonmetastatic osteosarcoma after preoperative chemotherapy, when combined with tumor size, holds promise for the identification of patients at risk of recurrence. The availability of such imaging-based response predictors could facilitate the development of risk-adapted treatment approaches.

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      Low bone mineral density in hormone-naïve men with prostate carcinoma (pages 2238–2245)

      Matthew R. Smith, Francis J. McGovern, Mary Anne Fallon, David Schoenfeld, Philip W. Kantoff and Joel S. Finkelstein

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2238::AID-CNCR1254>3.0.CO;2-2

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      In this study, the authors demonstrate that many men with prostate carcinoma and no history of androgen-deprivation therapy have low bone mineral density. Risk factors for osteoporosis, including low dietary calcium intake, hypogonadism, and hypovitaminosis D, are common.

    6. Breast Disease
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      Analysis of the prognostic effects of inclusion in a clinical trial and of myelosuppression on survival after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma (pages 2246–2257)

      Catherine Mayers, Tony Panzarella and Ian F. Tannock

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2246::AID-CNCR1255>3.0.CO;2-4

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      A review of 680 patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of breast carcinoma between 1980 and 1990 suggests a better prognosis for patients experiencing myelosuppression and for those included in a clinical trial.

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      Prognostic significance of the number of lymph nodes examined in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma (pages 2258–2262)

      Patricia G. Moorman, Ali Hamza, Jeffrey R. Marks and John A. Olson Jr.

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2258::AID-CNCR1256>3.0.CO;2-V

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      A recent report suggested that the number of lymph nodes examined was a strong independent predictor of survival in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma. However, in the larger study population used in the current report, there was no evidence that survival was related to the number of lymph nodes examined.

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      Computer-assisted complete three-dimensional reconstruction of the mammary ductal/lobular systems : Implications of ductal anastomoses for breast-conserving surgery (pages 2263–2272)

      Tohru Ohtake, Izo Kimijima, Toshihiko Fukushima, Mitsuhiko Yasuda, Kohji Sekikawa, Seiichi Takenoshita and Rikiya Abe

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2263::AID-CNCR1257>3.0.CO;2-5

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      The three-dimensional anatomic characteristics of ductal anastomoses in an entire breast were studied using a computer-assisted complete reconstruction of all mammary ductal/lobular systems in a surgical specimen.

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      Form or function? Part 1. Subjective cosmetic and functional correlates of quality of life in women treated with breast-conserving surgical procedures and radiotherapy (pages 2273–2281)

      Annette L. Stanton, Leela Krishnan and Charlotte A. Collins

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2273::AID-CNCR1258>3.0.CO;2-1

      In 185 women who were diagnosed with Stage 0–II breast carcinoma from 3 months to 18 years previously and who underwent breast-conserving surgical treatment and radiotherapy, self-reported functional status (e.g., arm stiffness), and particularly breast specific pain, was related more consistently to quality-of-life indicators than was self-reported cosmetic status.

      See accompanying article on pages 2282–7, this issue.

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      Form or function? Part 2. Objective cosmetic and functional correlates of quality of life in women treated with breast-conserving surgical procedures and radiotherapy (pages 2282–2287)

      Leela Krishnan, Annette L. Stanton, Charlotte A. Collins, Vici E. Liston and William R. Jewell

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2282::AID-CNCR1259>3.0.CO;2-0

      In 54 women who were diagnosed with Stage 0–II breast carcinoma from 9 months to 18 years previously and who underwent breast-conserving surgical treatment and radiotherapy, objectively rated arm edema was related significantly to quality-of-life (QOL) indicators. This functional outcome of treatment evidenced stronger relations with QOL indicators compared with an objective index of breast cosmesis.

      See accompanying article on pages 2273–81, this issue.

    11. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Phase II trial of epirubicin, cisplatin, oral uracil and tegafur, and leucovorin in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma (pages 2288–2293)

      Yoon T. Jeen, So Y. Yoon, Sang W. Shin, Byung S. Kim, Young J. Mok, Chong S. Kim, Jin H. Hyun, Jun S. Kim and Yeul H. Kim

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2288::AID-CNCR1260>3.0.CO;2-8

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      Epirubicin, cisplatin, uracil and tegafur, and leucovorin combination chemotherapy is highly active in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma.

    12. You have free access to this content
      Concurrent hypermethylation of multiple tumor-related genes in gastric carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues (pages 2294–2301)

      Wai K. Leung, Jun Yu, Enders K. W. Ng, Ka Fai To, Po K. Ma, Tin Lap Lee, Minnie Y.Y. Go, S. C. Sydney Chung and Joseph J. Y. Sung

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2294::AID-CNCR1261>3.0.CO;2-G

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      Concurrent hypermethylation of multiple tumor-related genes was detected frequently in gastric carcinoma and its adjacent normal tissues, which suggested the early involvement of aberrant methylation in the gastric carcinogenesis pathway.

    13. Genitournary Disease
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      Outcomes for men with clinically nonmetastatic prostate carcinoma managed with radical prostactectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or expectant management : A retrospective analysis (pages 2302–2314)

      Michael J. Barry, Peter C. Albertsen, Malcolm A. Bagshaw, Michael L. Blute, Richard Cox, Richard G. Middleton, Donald F. Gleason, Horst Zincke, Erik J. Bergstralh and Steven J. Jacobsen

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2302::AID-CNCR1262>3.0.CO;2-P

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      This article defines the outcomes of treatment for patients with nonmetastatic prostate carcinoma who were diagnosed in the era before the advent of prostate specific antigen screening and were treated with watchful waiting, radiotherapy, or radical prostatectomy. However, comparisons of outcomes for patients in different treatment groups are treacherous given the bias due to patient selection.

    14. You have free access to this content
      Human papillomavirus as a prognostic factor in carcinoma of the penis : Analysis of 82 patients treated with amputation and bilateral lymphadenectomy (pages 2315–2321)

      Artur L. R. Bezerra, Ademar Lopes, Geraldo H. Santiago, Karina C. B. Ribeiro, Maria R. D. O. Latorre and Luisa L. Villa

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2315::AID-CNCR1263>3.0.CO;2-C

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      Human papillomavirus DNA presence does not seem to influence disease evolution and prognosis in invasive penile carcinoma.

    15. You have free access to this content
      Prediction of prostate carcinoma stage by quantitative biopsy pathology (pages 2322–2328)

      Robert W. Veltri, M. Craig Miller, Alan W. Partin, Edward C. Poole and Gerard J. O'Dowd

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2322::AID-CNCR1264>3.0.CO;2-H

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      With the aid of advanced computational tools, quantitative pathology information extracted from biopsy specimens has been shown to enhance the prediction of organ-confined prostate carcinoma. Ordinal logistic regression and artificial neural network methodologies were used to train patient-specific statistical models to predict disease stage within a well-characterized set of patients. When challenged with an independent testing set, these trained computational models were able to predict with accuracy an organ-confined prostate carcinoma.

    16. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for unresectable ovarian carcinoma : A French multicenter study (pages 2329–2334)

      Yan Ansquer, Eric Leblanc, Krichna Clough, Philippe Morice, Jacques Dauplat, Patrice Mathevet, Catherine Lhommé, Christophe Scherer, Jean-Dominique Tigaud, Mehdi Benchaib, Emmanuelle Fourme, Damiene Castaigne, Denis Querleu and Daniel Dargent

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2329::AID-CNCR1265>3.0.CO;2-U

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      Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ovarian carcinoma help to select patients for feasible and less aggressive interval debulking.

    17. Head and Neck Disease
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      Completely resected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation is associated with prolonged survival (pages 2335–2342)

      Philip I. Haigh, Philip H. G. Ituarte, Hurng Sheng Wu, Patrick A. Treseler, Marc D. Posner, Jeanne M. Quivey, Quan Yang Duh and Orlo H. Clark

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2335::AID-CNCR1266>3.0.CO;2-1

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      Previous experience has shown that most patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer present with advanced disease and die soon after diagnosis. However, selected patients who had localized tumors were found to live for an extended period after they were treated with complete surgical resection plus postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation.

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      The significance of granzyme B expression in patients with angiocentric lymphoma of the head and neck (pages 2343–2352)

      Gwi Eon Kim, Woo-Ick Yang, Sang-wook Lee, Yong Bae Kim, Chang Ok Suh, Joo-Heon Yoon, Young Taik Oh, Hyun Cheol Chung and Byung Soo Kim

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2343::AID-CNCR1267>3.0.CO;2-3

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      By dividing patients with angiocentric lymphoma of the head and neck into two groups according to whether their tumors were positive or negative for the cytotoxic granule-associated protein, granzyme B, and comparing their clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings, patterns of disease failure, and survival data, it was found that granzyme B may be useful as an additional marker for identifying patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma and as a prognostic indicator for risk assessment in patients with angiocentric lymphoma of the head and neck.

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      Advanced head and neck carcinoma in women : Treatment outcomes may not improve with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (pages 2353–2360)

      Felix Leborgne, José H. Leborgne, Jack F. Fowler, Eduardo Zubizarreta and Julieta Mezzera

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2353::AID-CNCR1268>3.0.CO;2-#

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      Women seem to have a better prognosis than men after undergoing irradiation. Accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation in women did not provide significantly better treatment outcomes compared with conventional fractionation.

    20. You have free access to this content
      Short-term effects of radiotherapy on attention and memory performances in patients with brain tumors (pages 2361–2368)

      Arja M. Lilja, Raija I. Portin, Päivi I. Hämäläinen and Eeva K. Salminen

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2361::AID-CNCR1269>3.0.CO;2-1

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      Treatment with radiotherapy did not cause negative short-term effects on attentional and memory functions in patients with brain tumors who received a radiation dose of 54.5 grays. The cognitive deficits found in these patients were evident at baseline before radiotherapy.

    21. Hepatobiliary Tract
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      Pharmacokinetic study of intralesional cisplatin for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 2369–2377)

      Tony S. K. Mok, Sarath Kanekal, Xiao Rong Lin, Thomas W. T. Leung, Anthony T. C. Chan, Winnie Yeo, Simon Yu, Karen Chak, Rich Leavitt and Philip Johnson

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2369::AID-CNCR1270>3.0.CO;2-3

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      The authors performed a pharmacokinetic study of direct intralesional injection of cisplatin/epinephrine/bovine collagen gel into hepatocellular carcinoma. The results showed that this novel technology is capable of delaying cisplatin release from the tumor into systemic circulation.

    22. You have free access to this content
      Adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma causes deterioration of long-term prognosis in cirrhotic patients : Metaanalysis of three randomized controlled trials (pages 2378–2385)

      Takashi Ono, Akira Yamanoi, Osama Nazmy El Assal, Hitoshi Kohno and Naofumi Nagasue

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2378::AID-CNCR1271>3.0.CO;2-2

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      The efficacy of postoperative epirubicin and 5-FU was evaluated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma that had been treated by radical resection. Metaanalysis of the results of three randomized control trials showed that these regimens were detrimental to disease-free and overall survival rates in cirrhotic patients.

    23. You have free access to this content
      Association between insulin-like growth factor-2 and metastases after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma : A prospective study (pages 2386–2393)

      Byung-Cheol Song, Young-Hwa Chung, Jeong A. Kim, Han Chu Lee, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Kyu-Bo Sung, Soo Hyun Yang, Kwon Yoo, Yung Sang Lee and Dong Jin Suh

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2386::AID-CNCR1272>3.0.CO;2-4

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      Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), a common occurrence in patients with large-sized tumors and high serum α-fetoprotein levels, are reported to be associated with the development of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE.

    24. Lung Disease
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      Patterns of relapse of N2 nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy : Should prophylactic cranial irradiation be reconsidered? (pages 2394–2400)

      F. Andre, D. Grunenwald, J. L. Pujol, P. Girard, A. Dujon, L. Brouchet, P. Y. Brichon, V. Westeel and T. Le Chevalier

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2394::AID-CNCR1273>3.0.CO;2-6

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      Preoperative chemotherapy was shown to decrease the risk of visceral metastasis in N2 nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma patients but was associated with a high rate of brain metastasis. It was concluded that prophylactic cranial irradiation should be reinvestigated in future clinical trials.

    25. Skin and Soft Tissue
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      The sentinel lymph node status is an important factor for predicting clinical outcome in patients with Stage I or II cutaneous melanoma (pages 2401–2408)

      Markwin G. Statius Muller, Paul A. M. van Leeuwen, Elly S. M de Lange-de Klerk, Paul J. van Diest, Rik Pijpers, Charlotte C. Ferwerda, Ronald J. C. L. M. Vuylsteke and Sybren Meijer

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2401::AID-CNCR1274>3.0.CO;2-I

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      The sentinel lymph node (SLN) status has a strong additional value in predicting a minimum disease free period of 3 years after the SLN procedure. Patients with a positive SLN have a poorer prognosis than those with a negative SLN.

    26. You have free access to this content
      Efficacy of ultrasound B-scan compared with physical examination in follow-up of melanoma patients (pages 2409–2416)

      Christiane Voit, Thomas Mayer, Martina Kron, Alfred Schoengen, Wolfram Sterry, Lutz Weber and Thomas M. Proebstle

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2409::AID-CNCR1275>3.0.CO;2-S

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      Regional tumor recurrences of melanoma were detected earlier with ultrasound B-scan than with physical examination. Better overall survival was noted in patients who had smaller metastases and a lower number of metastases.

    27. Discipline

      Translational Research
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      Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are a marker for microsatellite instability in colorectal carcinoma (pages 2417–2422)

      Thomas C. Smyrk, Patrice Watson, Karen Kaul and Henry T. Lynch

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2417::AID-CNCR1276>3.0.CO;2-U

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      Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability have distinct molecular etiology and clinicopathologic features. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes may provide an economical indicator of colorectal carcinomas to test for microsatellite instability.

    28. Medical Oncology
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      The role of surgery and postoperative chemoradiation therapy in patients with lymph node positive esophageal carcinoma (pages 2423–2430)

      Eric L. R. Bédard, Richard I. Inculet, Richard A. Malthaner, Edward Brecevic, Mark Vincent and Rashid Dar

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2423::AID-CNCR1277>3.0.CO;2-1

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      Patients who have undergone resection for lymph node positive esophageal carcinoma are at high risk of disease recurrence and early death. The results of this study indicate that postoperative chemoradiation therapy appears to prolong survival in this patient population.

    29. You have free access to this content
      A Phase I trial of pulse calcitriol in patients with refractory malignancies : Pulse dosing permits substantial dose escalation (pages 2431–2439)

      Tomasz M. Beer, Myrna Munar and W. David Henner

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2431::AID-CNCR1278>3.0.CO;2-3

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      Substantial dose escalation with minimal toxicity was permitted by weekly dosing with oral calcitriol. Peak serum calcitriol levels in the range required for antiproliferative effects in vitro were achievable with weekly dosing.

    30. You have free access to this content
      Bulky disease is an adverse prognostic factor in patients treated with chemotherapy comprised of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone with or without radiotherapy for aggressive lymphoma (pages 2440–2446)

      Richard B. Wilder, Maria A. Rodriguez, Chul S. Ha, Barbara Pro, Mark A. Hess, Fernando Cabanillas and James D. Cox

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2440::AID-CNCR1279>3.0.CO;2-2

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      More than one extranodal site of disease, bulky disease, and an at least 1.1-fold elevation in the serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level were found to constitute independent, adverse prognostic factors for progression-free survival in patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with a chemotherapy regimen comprised of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone with or without consolidated radiotherapy. Age > 60 years, bulky disease, and an at least 1.1-fold elevation in the serum LDH level also were found to be adverse prognostic factors for overall survival. Involved-field radiotherapy should be considered in patients with bulky lymphomas.

    31. Surgical Oncology
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      Effect of myocutaneous inflammatory changes caused by intra-arterial chemotherapy on the outcome of patients who undergo limb-saving surgery (pages 2447–2453)

      Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Toshio Morinaga, Junichi Taki, Hisashi Sumiya, Osamu Matsui and Katsuro Tomita

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2447::AID-CNCR1280>3.0.CO;2-7

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      Myocutaneous inflammatory reactions caused by intra-arterial chemotherapy should be prevented, if possible, to obtain good limb function and chemotherapeutic effects in patients who undergo this type of chemotherapy. Resection of necrotic tissue is mandatory to relieve pain.

    32. Pediatric Oncology
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      What constitutes optimal therapy for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the female genital tract? (pages 2454–2468)

      Carola A. S. Arndt, Sarah S. Donaldson, James R. Anderson, Richard J. Andrassy, Fran Laurie, Michael P. Link, R. Beverly Raney, Harold M. Maurer, William M. Crist and Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group representing the Children's Oncology Group

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2454::AID-CNCR1281>3.0.CO;2-C

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      Females with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the genital tract are reported to have a 5-year survival of 87%. RMS at this site should be treated with combination chemotherapy, a conservative surgical approach, and the use of radiotherapy in selected patients. The best outcome is observed in patients ages 1–9 years, in whom the 5-year survival is reported to be 98% with multimodal therapy.

    33. Epidemiology
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      Survival patterns of cancer patients (pages 2469–2475)

      R. H. Riffenburgh and P. A. S. Johnstone

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2469::AID-CNCR1282>3.0.CO;2-U

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      Untreated cancer was found to follow the inverse of a Gompertz growth curve. Findings were derived from statistical modeling of archival data. Increased survival rates were dependent on stage at initial treatment thus demonstrating the need for screening and early treatment.

    34. You have free access to this content
      Lung carcinoma in African Americans : A review of the current literature (pages 2476–2482)

      John H. Stewart IV

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(20010615)91:12<2476::AID-CNCR1283>3.0.CO;2-Z

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      Lung carcinoma disproportionately affects the African-American community. The current work examines issues germane to lung carcinoma in the African-American community including incidence, survival, tobacco exposure, occupational exposure, susceptibility to carcinogens, and disparities in treatment.

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