• 1
    Arends MJ, Morris RG, Wyllie AH. Apoptosis: the role of the endonuclease. Am J Pathol 1990; 136: 593608.
  • 2
    Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. Int Rev Cytol 1980; 68: 251306.
  • 3
    Zauli G, Vitale M, Falcieri E, Gibellini D, Bassini A, Celeghini C, Columbaro M, Capitani S. In vitro senescence and apoptotic cell death of human megakaryocytes. Blood 1997; 90: 22342243.
  • 4
    Darzynkiewicz Z, Bruno S, Del Bino G, Gorczyca W, Hots MA, Lassota P, Traganos F. Features of apoptotic cells measured by flow cytometry. Cytometry 1992; 13: 795808.
  • 5
    Darzynkiewicz Z, Juan G, Li X, Gorczyca W, Murakami T, Traganos F. Cytometry in cell necrobiology: analysis of apoptosis and accidental cell death. Cytometry 1997; 27: 120.
  • 6
    Frey T. Correlated flow cytometric analysis of terminal events in apoptosis reveals the absence of some changes in some model systems. Cytometry 1997; 28: 253263.
  • 7
    Cohen JJ. Programmed cell death in the immune system. Adv Immunol 1991; 50: 5585.
  • 8
    Ellis RE, Yuan J, Horvitz HR. Mechanisms and functions of cell death. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1991; 7: 663698.
  • 9
    Gerschenson LE, Rotello RJ. Apoptosis: a different type of cell death. FASEB J 1992; 6: 24502455.
  • 10
    Giannakis C, Forbes IJ, Zalewski PD. Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent nuclease: tissue distribution, relationship to inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and inhibition by Zn2+. Bioch Biophys Res Commun 1991; 181: 915920.
  • 11
    Kerr JFR, Wyllie AH, Curie AR. Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer 1972; 26: 239257.
  • 12
    Sen S, D'Incalci M. Apoptosis: biochemical events and relevance to cancer chemotherapy. FEBS Lett 1992; 307: 122127.
  • 13
    William JT. Programmed cell death: apoptosis and oncogenes. Cell 1991; 65: 10971098.
  • 14
    Barbieri D, Troiano L, Grassilli E, Agnesini C, Cristofalo EA, Monti D, Capri M, Cssarizza A, Franceschi C. Inhibition of apoptosis by zinc: a reappraisal. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992; 187: 12561261.
  • 15
    Zamai L, Falcieri E, Marhefka G, Vitale M. Supravital exposure to propidium iodide identifies apoptotic cells in absence of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cytometry 1996; 23: 303311.
  • 16
    Falcieri E, Martelli AM, Bareggi R, Cataldi A, Cocco L. The protein kinase inhibitor induces morphological changes typical of apoptosis in Molt-4 cells without concomitant DNA fragmentation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993; 193: 1925.
  • 17
    Oberhammer F, Wilson JW, Dive C, Morris ID, Hickman JA, Wakeling AE, Walker PR, Sikorska M. Apoptotic death in epithelial cells: cleavage of DNA to 300 and/or 50 kb fragments prior or in the absence of internucleosomal fragmentation. EMBO J 1993; 12: 36793684.
  • 18
    Schulze-Osthoff K, Walczak H, Droge W, Krammer PH. Cell nucleous and DNA fragmentation are not required for apoptosis. J Cell Biol 1994; 127: 1520.
  • 19
    Collins RJ, Harmon BV, Gobe' GC, Kerr JFR. Internucleosomal DNA cleavage should not be the sole criterium for identifying apoptosis. Int Radiat Biol 1992; 61: 451453.
  • 20
    Zamai L, Falcieri E, Zauli G, Cataldi A, Vitale M. Optimal detection of apoptosis by flow cytometry depends on cell morphology. Cytometry 1993; 14: 891897.
  • 21
    Nicoletti I, Migliorati G, Pagliacci MC, Grignani F, Riccardi C. A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 1991; 139: 271279.
  • 22
    Vitale M, Zamai L, Mazzotti G, Cataldi A, Falcieri E. Differential kinetic of propidium iodide uptake in apoptotic and necrotic thymocytes. Histochemistry 1993; 100: 223229.
  • 23
    Van Engeland M, Ramaekers FCS, Schutte B, Reutelingsperger CPM. A novel assay to measure loss of plasma membrane asymmetry during apoptosis of adherent cells in culture. Cytometry 1996; 24: 131139.
  • 24
    Donner KJ, Becker KM, Hissong BD, Ansar Ahmed S. Comparison of multiple assays for kinetic detection of apoptosis in thymocytes exposed to dexamethasone or diethylstilbesterol. Cytometry 1999; 35: 8090.
  • 25
    Reno' F, Burattini S, Rossi S, Luchetti F, Columbaro M, Santi S, Papa S, Falcieri E. Phospholipid rearrangement of apoptotic membrane does not depend on nuclear activity. Histochem Cell Biol 1998; 110: 467476.
  • 26
    Van Engeland M, Nieland LJW, Ramaekers FCS, Schutte B, Reutelingsperger CPM. Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure. Cytometry 1998; 31: 19.
  • 27
    Mannello F, Malatesta M, Luchetti F, Papa S, Battistelli S, Gazzanelli G. Immunoreactivity, ultrastructural localization, and transcript expression of prostate-specific antigen in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Clin Chem 1999; 45: 7884.
  • 28
    Zamai L, Ahmad M, Bennett IM, Azzoni L, Alnemri ES, Perussia B. Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity: differential use of TRAIL and Fas ligand by immature and mature primary human NK cells. J Exp Med 1998; 188: 23752380.
  • 29
    Walczak H, Miller RE, Ariail K, Gliniak B, Griffith TS, Kubin M, Chin W, Jones J, Woodward A, Le T, Smith C, Smolak P, Goodwin RG, Rauch CT, Schuh JC, Lynch DH. Tumoricidal activity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo. Nature Med 1999; 5: 157160.
  • 30
    Zamai L, Secchiero P, Pierpaoli S, Bassini A, Papa S, Alnemri ES, Guidotti L, Vitale M, Zauli G. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a negative regulator of normal human erythropoiesis. Blood 2000; 95: 37163724.
  • 31
    Zamai L, Falcieri E, Gobbi P, Santi S, Falconi M, Marhefka G, Vitale M. Anti-BrdUrd labelling of newly synthesized DNA in HL-60 cells triggered to apoptosis. Cytometry 1996; 25: 324332.
  • 32
    Poot M, Pierce RH. Detection of changes in mitochondrial function during apoptosis by simultaneous staining with multiple fluorescent dyes and correlated multiparameter flow cytometry. Cytometry 1999; 35: 311317.
  • 33
    Salvioli S, Ardizzoni A, Franceschi C, Cossarizza A. JC-1, but not DiOC6(3) or rhodamine 123, is a relaible fluorescent probe to assess delta psi changes in intact cells: implications for studies on mitochondrial functionality during apoptosis. FEBS Lett 1997; 411: 7782.
  • 34
    Salvioli S, Barbi C, Dobrucki J, Moretti L, Pinti M, Pedrazzi J, Pazienza TL Bobyleva V, Franceschi C, Cossarizza A. Opposite role of changes in mitochondrial potential in different apoptotic processes. FEBS Lett 2000; 469: 186190.
  • 35
    Vitale M, Zamai L, Falcieri E, Zauli G, Gobbi P, Santi S, Cinti C, Weber G. IMP dehydrogenase inhibitor, tiazofurin, induces apoptosis in K562 human erythroleukemia cells. Cytometry 1997; 30: 6166.
  • 36
    Schmid I, Uittenbogaart CH, Giorgi JV. Sensitive method for measuring apoptosis and cell surface phenotype in human thymocytes by flow cytometry. Cytometry 1994; 15: 1220.
  • 37
    Lyons AB, Samuel K, Sanderson A, Maddy AH. Simultaneous analysis of immunophenotype and apoptosis of murine thymocytes by single laser flow cytometry. Cytometry 1992; 13: 809821.
  • 38
    Ormerod MG, Sun X-M, Snowden RT, Davies R, Fearnhead H, Cohen JM. Increased membrane permeability of apoptotic thymocytes: a flow cytometric study. Cytometry 1993; 14: 595602.
  • 39
    Dive C, Gregory CD, Phipps DJ, Evans DL, Milner AE, Wyllie AH. Analysis and discrimination of necrosis and apoptosis (programmed cell death) by multiparameter flow cytometry. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992; 1133: 275285.
  • 40
    Lecoeur H, Ledru E, Gougeon M-L. A cytofluorimetric method for the simultaneous detection of both intracellular and surface antigens of apoptotic peripheral lymphocytes. J Immunol Methods 1998; 217: 1126.
  • 41
    Philpott NJ, Turner AJC, Scopes J, Westby M, Marsh JCW, Gordon-Smith EC, Dalgleish AG, Gibson FM. The use of 7-amino actinomycin D in identifying apoptosis: simplicity of use and broad spectrum of application compared with other techniques. Blood 1996; 87: 22442251.
  • 42
    Connor J, Pak CC, Schroit AJ. Exposure of phophatidylserine in the outer leaflet of human red cells. Relationship to cell density, cell age and clearance by mononuclear cells. J Biol Chem 1994; 28: 23992404.
  • 43
    Bevers EM, Comfurius P, Zwaal RF. Changes in membrane phospholipid distribution during platelet activation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983; 736: 5766.
  • 44
    Dachary-Prigent J, Freyssinet JM, Pasquet JM, Carron JC, Nurden AT. Annexin V as a probe of aminophospholipid exposure and platelet membrane vesciculation: a flow cytometry study showing a role for free sulfhydryl groups. Blood 1993; 10: 25542565.
  • 45
    Metcalfe P, Williamson LM, Reutelingsperger CP, Swann I, Ouwehand WH, Goodall AH. Activation during preparation of therapeutic platelets affects deterioration during storage: a comparative flow cytometric study of different production methods. Br J Haematol 1997; 98: 8695.
  • 46
    Xie GL, Nomura S, Fukuhara S. Annexin V expression and membrane vesciculation during activation of leukemic cell lines. Haemostasis 1998; 27: 259268.
  • 47
    Mower DA, Peckham DW, Illera VA, Fishbaugh JK, Stunz LL, Ashman RF. Decreased membrane phospholipid packing and decreased cell size precede DNA cleavage in mature mouse B cell apoptosis. J Immunol 1994; 152: 48324842.