SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 4974.
  • Affleck, G., Allen, D., McGrade, B. J., & McQueeney, M. (1982). Maternal causal attributions at hospital discharge of high-risk infants. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86, 575580.
  • Beck, A. T. (1964). Thinking and depression: II. Theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 561571.
  • Beck, A. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy: A 30-year retrospective. American Psychologist, 46, 368375.
  • Beck, A. T., & Haaga, D. A. (1992). The future of cognitive therapy. Psychotherapy, 29, 3438.
  • Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Bernstein, I. H., & Garbin, C. P. (1985). A simple set of salient weights for the major dimensions of MMPI scale variation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 771787.
  • Bernstein, I. H., Teng, G., Grannemann, B. D., & Garbin, C. P. (1987). Invariance in the MMPI's component structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 51, 522531.
  • Box, G. E. P., & Cox, D. R. (1964). An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 26, 211252.
  • Brown, D. M., & Reid, P. T. (1990). Learned helplessness & battered women: A literature review. Unpublished manuscript, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.
  • Buchannan, G., & Seligman, M. E. P. (Eds.) (in press). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Bukstel, L. H., & Kilmann, P. R. (1980). Psychological effects of imprisonment on confined individuals. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 469493.
  • Burns, M. O., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1989). Explanatory style across the life span: Evidence for stability over 52 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 471477.
  • Caldwell, A. B. (1988). MMPI supplemental scale manual. Los Angeles: Caldwell Report.
  • Cellucci, A. J., & Jordan, J. J. (1990). Attributional style and alcohol expectancies (abstract). Unpublished manuscript, Francis Marion College, Florence, SC.
  • Clopton, J. R. (1978). MMPI scale development methodology. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 148151.
  • Clopton, J. R. (1982). MMPI scale development methodology reconsidered. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 143146.
  • Clopton, J. R., & Neuringer, C. (1977). FORTRAN computer programs for the development of new MMPI scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37, 783786.
  • Colligan, R. C., & Offord, K. P. (1989). The aging MMPI: Contemporary norms for contemporary teenagers. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 64, 327.
  • Colligan, R. C., & Offord, K. P. (1992). The MMPI: A contemporary normative study of adolescents. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • Colligan, R. C., Osborne, D., Swenson, W. M., & Offord, K. P. (1984). The aging MMPI: Development of contemporary norms. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 59, 377390.
  • Colligan, R. C., Osborne, D., Swenson, W. M., & Offord, K. P. (1989). The MMPI: A contemporary normative study of adults (2nd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Coyne, J. C., & Gotlib, I. H. (1983). The role of cognition in depression: A critical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472505.
  • Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297334.
  • Dahlstrom, W. G., & Welsh, G. S. (1960). An MMPI handbook: A guide to use in clinical practice and research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Dahlstrom, W. G., Welsh, G. S., & Dahlstrom, L. E. (1972). An MMPI handbook: Vol. 1. Clinical interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Dahlstrom, W. G., Welsh, G. S., & Dahlstrom, L. E. (1975). An MMPI handbook: Vol. 2. Research applications. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Elder, G., Bettes, B. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). Cited by Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984).
  • Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins, J. F., Glass, D. R., Pilkonis, P. A., Leber, W. R., Docherty, J. P., Fiester, S. J., & Parloff, M. B. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program: General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 971982.
  • Hollon, S. D., Shelton, R. C., & Loosen, P. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 8899.
  • Kamen, L. P., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1987). Explanatory style and health. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 6, 207218.
  • Kamen-Siegel, L., Rodin, J., Seligman, M. E. P., & Dwyer, J. (1991). Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity in elderly men and women. Health Psychology, 10, 229235.
  • Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937). The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Psychometrika, 2, 151160.
  • Lachman, M. E. (1990). When bad things happen to older people: Age differences in attributional style. Psychology and Aging, 5, 607609.
  • Lachman, M. E., & McArthur, L. Z. (1986). Adulthood age differences in causal attributions for cognitive, physical, and social performance. Psychology and Aging, 1, 127132.
  • Laudenslager, M. L., Ryan, S. M., Drugan, R. C., Hyson, R. L., & Maier, S. F. (1983). Coping and immunosuppression: inescapable but not escapable shock suppresses lymphocyte proliferation. Science, 221, 568570.
  • Levenson, J. L., & Bemis, C. (1991). The role of psychological factors in cancer onset and progression. Psychosomatics, 32, 124132.
  • Levitt, E. E. (1978). A note of “MMPI scale development methodology.”. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 503504.
  • Levitt, E. E. (1989). The clinical application of MMPI special scales. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Lewak, R. W., Marks, P. A., & Nelson, G. E. (1990). Therapist guide to MMPI & MMPI-2: Providing feedback and treatment. Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development.
  • Lewinsohn, P. M., Muñoz, R. F., Youngren, M. A., & Zeiss, A. M. (1986). Control your depression. New York: Prentice Hall.
  • Maiden, R. J. (1987). Learned helplessness and depression: A test of the reformulated model. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 6064.
  • Matson, J. L. (1989). Treating depression in children and adolescents. New York: Pergamon Press.
  • Metalsky, G. I., Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., Semmel, A., & Peterson, C. (1982). Attributional styles and life events in the classroom: Vulnerability and invulnerability to depressive mood reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 612617.
  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1986). Learned helplessness in children: A longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 435442.
  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405422.
  • Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Overmier, J. B., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 2833.
  • Peterson, C. (1988). Explanatory style as a risk factor for illness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 119132.
  • Peterson, C. (1991). On shortening the expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 179183.
  • Peterson, C., Bettes, B. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1985). Depressive symptoms and unprompted causal attributions: Content analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 23, 379382.
  • Peterson, C., Luborsky, L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1983). Attributions and depressive mood shifts: A case study using the symptom-context method. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 96103.
  • Peterson, C., Maier, S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (in press). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Therapy and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347374.
  • Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1987). Explanatory style and illness. Journal of Personality, 55, 237265.
  • Peterson, C., Seligman, M. E. P., & Vaillant, G. E. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 2327.
  • Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287300.
  • Peterson, C., & Villanova, P. (1988). An expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 8789.
  • Sacco, W. P., & Beck, A. T. (1985). Cognitive therapy of depression. In E. E.Beckham & W. R.Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment, and research (pp. 338). Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  • SAS Institute (1990). SAS user's guide: Statistics. Version 6. Vol. 2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
  • Schoenherr, S. J., Brown, R. T., Baldwin, K., & Kaslow, N. J. (1992). Attributional styles and psychopathology in pediatric chronic-illness groups. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 380387.
  • Schulman, P., Castellon, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1989). Assessing explanatory style: The content analysis of verbatim explanations and the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Behavior Research and Therapy, 27, 505512.
  • Schulman, P., Keith, D., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Is optimism heritable? A study of twins. Manuscript submitted for publication.
  • Schulman, P., Seligman, M. E., & Amsterdam, D. (1987). The Attributional Style Questionnaire is not transparent. Behavior Research and Therapy, 25, 391395.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). The disruptive effects of unpredictable shock. Dissertation Abstracts [B] Sciences and Engineering, 28, 1714B.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. New York: W. H. Freeman.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1987). Applications of learned helplessness and self-blame research. Seminar presented at the Midwest Society of Behavioral Medicine, July 10 to 12, Lake Okoboji, Iowa.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1989). Explanatory style: Predicting depression, achievement, and health. In M. D.Yapko (Ed.), Brief therapy approaches to treating anxiety and depression (pp. 532). New York: Brunner-Mazel.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (in press a). The explanatory style scoring manual. In C. P.Smith (Ed.), Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (in press b). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death (2nd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Abramson, L. Y., Semmel, A., & von Baeyer, C. (1979). Depressive attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 242247.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Elder, G., Jr. (1986). Learned helplessness and life-span development. In A. B.Sørensen, F. E.Weinert, & L. R.Sherrod (Eds.), Human development and the life course: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 377428). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Kamen, L. P., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1988). Explanatory style across the life span: Achievement and health. In E. M.Hetherington, R. M.Lerner, & M.Perlmutter (Eds.), Child development in life-span perspective (pp. 91114). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Maier, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 19.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N., & Thornton, K. M. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychological Science, 1, 143146.
    Direct Link:
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Peterson, C., Kaslow, N. J., Tanenbaum, R. L., Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1984). Attributional style and depressive symptoms among children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 235238.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Schulman, P. (1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance sales agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832838.
  • Sweeney, P. D., Anderson, K., & Bailey, S. (1986). Attributional style in depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 974991.
  • Tennen, H., Affleck, G., Allen, D., McGrade, B. J., & Ratzan, S. (1973). Unpublished manuscript, University of Connecticut, Storrs. Cited by Peterson & Seligman (1984).
  • Tennen, H., Affleck, G., & Gershman, K. (1986). Self-blame among parents of infants with perinatal complications: The role of self-protective motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 690696.
  • Tennen, H., & Herzberger, S. (1985). A review of the Attributional Style Questionnaire. In D. J.Keyser & R. C.Sweetland (Eds.), Test critiques (Vol. 4, pp. 2032). Kansas City, MO: Test Corporation of America.
  • Trunnell, E. P. (1986). A comparison of immune, psychological and hormone factors in women with and without premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
  • Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Vaughan, J. A., Jr., & Knapp, R. H. (1963). A study of pessimism. Journal of Social Psychology, 59, 7792.
  • Visintainer, M. A., Volpicelli, J. R., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). Tumor rejection in rats after inescapable or escapable shock. Science, 216, 437439.
  • Weary, G., Stanley, M. A., & Harvey, J. H. (1989). Attribution. New York: Springer. (Chapter 6, Attribution and health-related functioning, pp. 106147).
  • Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1991a). A short form of expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 365369.
  • Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1991b). On the psychometric properties of the short form of the expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire: The response to Peterson. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 537539.
  • Zullow, H. M., Oettingen, G., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style in the historical record: CAVEing LBJ, presidential candidates, and East versus West Berlin. American Psychologist, 43, 673682.
  • Zullow, H. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1990a). Pessimistic rumination predicts defeat of presidential candidates, 1900 to 1984. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 5261.
  • Zullow, H. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1990b). “Pessimistic rumination predicts defeat of presidential candidates, 1900 to 1984”: Response. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 8085.