• hormones;
  • progestogens;
  • estrous cycle;
  • pregnancy;
  • non-invasive monitoring;
  • testis


Considerable information now is available about the basic reproductive biology of elephants, especially females. However, as important as this knowledge is, it no longer is enough to simply compile it into a database. The potential exists for using endocrine monitoring techniques to solve real problems. This review summarizes our current knowledge of elephant endocrinology and offers suggestions on how to use the technology to maximize reproductive potential. The estrous cycle can be monitored through the analysis of serum progestogens, primarily 5α-reduced compounds, and consists of an 8- to 12-week luteal phase and a 4- to 6-week inter-luteal period. Proof of ovarian cyclicity currently is mandatory before Species Survival Plan breeding recommendations are approved. However, because many adult females are not cycling normally, the reproductive monitoring of all cows throughout their life span is now encouraged. Complete endocrine evaluations in conjunction with ultrasound examinations and behavioral assessments are needed to identify causes of reproductive failure and develop mitigating treatments. Progestogen analyses also are effective for monitoring pregnancy, but only if longitudinal samples are collected. Alternatively, pregnancy can be diagnosed in occasional samples using serum prolactin or possibly relaxin measurements after 20 weeks of gestation. Parturition can be predicted on the basis of the rapid decrease in progestogens that occurs about 2–5 days before birth. An updated model of ovarian dynamics during the estrous cycle suggests that two waves of follicular development occur 3 weeks apart during the non-luteal phase, possibly under the control of follicle-stimulating hormone. Each follicular wave culminates in a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, with the second surge inducing ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The functional significance of the first, anovulatory LH surge is under investigation, but from a practical perspective it can be used to schedule breeding (by artificial insemination or natural mating) to coincide with the ovulatory LH surge. Less is known about the reproductive biology of bulls, aside from the fact that musth is associated with dramatic changes in androgen secretion. Studies are needed to determine whether poor libido and inadequate semen quality observed in some mature elephants are due to testicular steroidogenic dysfunction. When blood samples cannot be collected for routine hormone analysis, gonadal activity can be monitored non-invasively through the measurement of excreted steroid metabolites (males: androgens; females: estrogens, progestogens) in urine and feces. Lastly, suggestions for future research priorities are provided. Zoo Biol 19:347–367, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.