Standard Article


  1. Max Appl

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a02_143.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Appl, M. 2006. Ammonia. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Dannstadt-Schauernheim, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)


The article contains sections titled:

1.Occurrence and History
2.Physical Properties
3.Chemical Properties
4.1.Historical Development
4.2.Thermodynamic Data
4.3.Ammonia Synthesis Reaction
4.3.1.General Aspects
4.3.2.Catalyst Surface and Reaction Mechanism
4.4.1.Classical Iron Catalysts Size and Shape Manufacture Reduction Poisons
4.4.2.Other Catalysts Aspects with Catalytic Potential Ruthenium Catalysts
4.5.Process Steps of Ammonia Production
4.5.1.Synthesis Gas Production Pretreatment and Raw Gas Production Monoxide Shift Conversion Purification
4.5.3.Ammonia Synthesis Loop Configurations of Ammonia in the Converter Utilization and Cooling Recovery from the Ammonia Synthesis Loop and Purge-Gas Management of Pressure and Other Variables of the Synthesis Loop of an Industrial Synthesis Loop
4.6.Complete Ammonia Production Plants
4.6.1.Steam Reforming Ammonia Plants Basic Concept of Single-Train Plants Developments Energy Requirement for Steam Reforming Processes Steam Reforming Ammonia Processes Conventional Processes with Reduced Primary Reformer Firing Without a Fired Primary Reformer (Exchanger Reformer) Without a Secondary Reformer (Nitrogen from Air Separation)
4.6.2.Ammonia Plants based on Partial Oxidation Plants Based on Heavy Hydrocarbons Plants Using Coal as Feedstock
4.6.3.Waste-Heat Boilers
4.6.4.Single-Train Capacity – Mega Ammonia Plants
4.7.Modernization of Older Plants (Revamping)
4.8.Material Considerations for Equipment Fabrication
5.Storage and Shipping
5.1.1.Pressure Storage
5.1.2.Low-Temperature Storage
5.1.3.Underground Storage
5.1.4.Storage of Aqueous Ammonia
6.Quality Specifications and Analysis
7.Environmental, Safety, and Health Aspects
7.1.Environmental Aspects of Ammonia Production and Handling
7.2.Safety Features
7.3.Health Aspects and Toxicity of Ammonia
9.Economic Aspects
10.Future Perspectives