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Ammonia

  1. Max Appl

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a02_143.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Appl, M. 2006. Ammonia. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Dannstadt-Schauernheim, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Occurrence and History
2.Physical Properties
3.Chemical Properties
4.Production
4.1.Historical Development
4.2.Thermodynamic Data
4.3.Ammonia Synthesis Reaction
4.3.1.General Aspects
4.3.2.Catalyst Surface and Reaction Mechanism
4.3.3.Kinetics
4.4.Catalysts
4.4.1.Classical Iron Catalysts
4.4.1.1.Composition
4.4.1.2.Particle Size and Shape
4.4.1.3.Catalyst-Precursor Manufacture
4.4.1.4.Catalyst Reduction
4.4.1.5.Catalyst Poisons
4.4.2.Other Catalysts
4.4.2.1.General Aspects
4.4.2.2.Metals with Catalytic Potential
4.4.2.3.Commercial Ruthenium Catalysts
4.5.Process Steps of Ammonia Production
4.5.1.Synthesis Gas Production
4.5.1.1.Feedstock Pretreatment and Raw Gas Production
4.5.1.2.Carbon Monoxide Shift Conversion
4.5.1.3.Gas Purification
4.5.2.Compression
4.5.3.Ammonia Synthesis
4.5.3.1.Synthesis Loop Configurations
4.5.3.2.Formation of Ammonia in the Converter
4.5.3.3.Waste-Heat Utilization and Cooling
4.5.3.4.Ammonia Recovery from the Ammonia Synthesis Loop
4.5.3.5.Inert-Gas and Purge-Gas Management
4.5.3.6.Influence of Pressure and Other Variables of the Synthesis Loop
4.5.3.7.Example of an Industrial Synthesis Loop
4.6.Complete Ammonia Production Plants
4.6.1.Steam Reforming Ammonia Plants
4.6.1.1.The Basic Concept of Single-Train Plants
4.6.1.2.Further Developments
4.6.1.3.Minimum Energy Requirement for Steam Reforming Processes
4.6.1.4.Commercial Steam Reforming Ammonia Processes
4.6.1.4.1.Advanced Conventional Processes
4.6.1.4.2.Processes with Reduced Primary Reformer Firing
4.6.1.4.3.Processes Without a Fired Primary Reformer (Exchanger Reformer)
4.6.1.4.4.Processes Without a Secondary Reformer (Nitrogen from Air Separation)
4.6.2.Ammonia Plants based on Partial Oxidation
4.6.2.1.Ammonia Plants Based on Heavy Hydrocarbons
4.6.2.2.Ammonia Plants Using Coal as Feedstock
4.6.3.Waste-Heat Boilers
4.6.4.Single-Train Capacity – Mega Ammonia Plants
4.7.Modernization of Older Plants (Revamping)
4.8.Material Considerations for Equipment Fabrication
5.Storage and Shipping
5.1.Storage
5.1.1.Pressure Storage
5.1.2.Low-Temperature Storage
5.1.3.Underground Storage
5.1.4.Storage of Aqueous Ammonia
5.2.Transportation
6.Quality Specifications and Analysis
7.Environmental, Safety, and Health Aspects
7.1.Environmental Aspects of Ammonia Production and Handling
7.2.Safety Features
7.3.Health Aspects and Toxicity of Ammonia
8.Uses
9.Economic Aspects
10.Future Perspectives