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Antibiotics

  1. Masaji Ohno1,
  2. Masami Otsuka2,
  3. Yoshinari Okamoto2,
  4. Morimasa Yagisawa3,
  5. Shinichi Kondo4,
  6. Heinz Öppinger5,
  7. Hinrich Hoffmann5,
  8. Dieter Sukatsch5,
  9. Leo Hepner6,
  10. Celia Male6

Published Online: 15 JUL 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a02_467.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Ohno, M., Otsuka, M., Okamoto, Y., Yagisawa, M., Kondo, S., Öppinger, H., Hoffmann, H., Sukatsch, D., Hepner, L. and Male, C. 2008. Antibiotics. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

  2. 2

    Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

  3. 3

    Japan Antibiotics Research Association, Tokyo, Japan

  4. 4

    Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Tokyo, Japan

  5. 5

    Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft, Frankfurt, Germany

  6. 6

    L. Hepner and Associates, Ltd., London, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2008

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

Antibiotics can be defined as chemical substances capable of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. In the past decades, numerous compounds possessing various biological activities have been discovered. Antibiotics can be of microbial origin, semisynthic, or totally synthetic. Their classification is based mostly on structural characteristics. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the classes, production, and uses of antibiotica.

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.General Definition
1.2.Historical Development and Classification
1.3.Nomenclature
2.Chemotherapeutic Use of Antibiotics
2.1.Microbial Pathogens
2.2.Tumor Cells
2.3.Chemotherapeutic Uses
2.4.Use in Agriculture
2.5.Units
2.6.Analysis
3.Classification of Antibiotics
3.1.β-Lactams
3.1.1.Natural Penicillins
3.1.2.Semisynthetic Penicillins
3.1.3.Natural Cephalosporins
3.1.4.Semisynthetic Cephalosporins
3.1.5.Cephamycins
3.1.6.1-Oxacephems
3.1.7.β-Lactamase Inhibitors
3.1.8.Penems
3.1.9.Carbapenems
3.1.10.Monocyclic β-Lactams
3.2.Tetracyclines
3.3.Anthracyclines
3.4.Aminoglycosides
3.5.Nucleosides
3.5.1.N-Nucleosides
3.5.2.C-Nucleosides
3.5.3.Carbocyclic Nucleosides
3.6.Macrolides
3.6.1.12-Membered Ring Macrolides
3.6.2.14-Membered Ring Macrolides
3.6.3.16-Membered Ring Macrolides
3.6.4.Polyenes
3.7.Ansamycins
3.8.Peptides
3.9.Enediyne
3.10.Other Important Antibiotics
4.Antibiotic Resistance
5.Fermentation
5.1.Screening
5.2.Selection, Mutation, and Maintenance of Strains
5.3.Process Development Leading to Large-Scale Production
5.4.Fermentation Technology
5.4.1.Maintenance of the Strain and Production of Inoculum
5.4.2.Treatment Before and During Fermentation
6.Isolation and Purification of Antibiotics; Quality Specifications
6.1.Isolation
6.2.Purification Techniques, Sterile End Products, Official Regulations
7.Analytical Measurements and Quality Control
7.1.Microbiological Analysis
7.2.Isotopically Labeled Antibiotics
8.Economic Aspects