Standard Article

Antibiotics, 1. General

  1. Masaji Ohno1,
  2. Masami Otsuka2,
  3. Yoshinari Okamoto2,
  4. Morimasa Yagisawa3,
  5. Shinichi Kondo4

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a02_467.pub3

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Ohno, M., Otsuka, M., Okamoto, Y., Yagisawa, M. and Kondo, S. 2011. Antibiotics, 1. General. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

  2. 2

    Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

  3. 3

    Japan Antibiotics Research Association, Tokyo, Japan

  4. 4

    Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

Abstract

Antibiotics can be defined as chemical substances capable of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. In the past decades, numerous compounds possessing various biological activities have been discovered. Antibiotics can be of microbial origin, semisynthic, or totally synthetic. Their classification is based mostly on structural characteristics. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the classes of antibiotica.

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.General Definition
1.2.Historical Development and Classification
1.3.Nomenclature
2.Chemotherapeutic Use of Antibiotics
2.1.Microbial Pathogens
2.2.Tumor Cells
2.3.Chemotherapeutic Uses
2.4.Use in Agriculture
2.5.Units
2.6.Analysis
3.Classification of Antibiotics
3.1.β-Lactams
3.1.1.Natural Penicillins
3.1.2.Semisynthetic Penicillins
3.1.3.Natural Cephalosporins
3.1.4.Semisynthetic Cephalosporins
3.1.5.Cephamycins
3.1.6.1-Oxacephems
3.1.7.β-Lactamase Inhibitors
3.1.8.Penems
3.1.9.Carbapenems
3.1.10.Monocyclic β-Lactams
3.2.Tetracyclines
3.3.Anthracyclines
3.4.Aminoglycosides
3.5.Nucleosides
3.5.1.N-Nucleosides
3.5.2.C-Nucleosides
3.5.3.Carbocyclic Nucleosides
3.6.Macrolides
3.6.1.12-Membered Ring Macrolides
3.6.2.14-Membered Ring Macrolides
3.6.3.16-Membered Ring Macrolides
3.6.4.Polyenes
3.7.Ansamycins
3.8.Peptides
3.9.Enediyne
3.10.Other Important Antibiotics
4.Antibiotic Resistance