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  1. Dietrich Berndt1,
  2. Dieter Spahrbier2

Published Online: 15 JUN 2001

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a03_343

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Berndt, D. and Spahrbier, D. 2001. Batteries. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    (formerly VARTA Batterie AG), Kronberg, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    (formerly VARTA Batterie AG), Kelkheim, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2001

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (23 SEP 2014)


The article contains sections titled:

3.Fundamental Laws
3.1.Equilibrium or Thermodynamic Parameters
3.2.Current Flow, Kinetic Parameters
3.2.1.Electron Transfer
3.2.2.Tafel Lines
3.2.3.Influence of Temperature
3.3.Heat Effects
3.3.1.Reversible Heat Effect
3.3.2.Current Related Heat Effects (Joule Effect)
3.3.3.Heat Generation in Total
3.4.Heating of the Battery
4.Battery Properties and Characteristics
4.1.Cell and Battery
4.1.1.Active Material of Volume of Electrode Structure
4.1.2.Nonactive Components Components Components
4.2.Battery Parameters
4.2.2.Capacity Batteries Batteries
4.2.3.Energy Content
4.2.4.Internal Resistance and Power Output
4.2.5.Charge Parameters
4.2.6.Self-Discharge Potential Self-Discharge Mechanisms Self-Discharge Loss During Storage
5.Classification of Battery Systems
5.1.Classification by Electrolyte
5.2.Classification by Construction
5.2.1.External Construction
5.2.2.Internal Construction
6.Primary Batteries, Systems, and Application
6.1.Systems Employing an Aqueous Electrolyte
6.1.1.Batteries with Weak Acid Electrolyte - Zinc Systems Properties and Their Applications - Zinc System Properties and Their Applications
6.1.2.Batteries with “Neutral Electrolyte”
6.1.3.Batteries with Alkaline Electrolyte Dioxide - Zinc System Properties and Their Applications Alkaline Manganese Dioxide - Zinc System Oxide - Zinc System Properties and Their Application Oxide - Zinc System Properties and Application Air - Zinc System Properties Access Opening: Its Seal and Diffusion Resistance and Their Application
6.2.Batteries with Nonaqueous Electrolyte
6.2.1.Batteries with Organic Electrolyte Dioxide - Lithium System Properties and Their Applications Poly-monofluoride - Lithium System Properties and Their Applications Disulfide - Lithium Systems“1.5 V” Lithium Systems Properties and Their Applications
6.2.2.Batteries with Soluble Cathode Dioxide - Lithium System Properties and Their Applications Chloride - Lithium System Properties and Their Applications
6.2.3.Batteries with a Nonliquid Electrolyte and Solid Electrolyte Systems LiI(Al2O3) Solid Electrolyte System Lithium - Iodine System Properties and Their Applications
6.3.Reserve Batteries
6.3.1.Principles Activation with Liquid Electrolyte Batteries Activated Batteries Batteries Activation by Ammonia Batteries Heat Sources Construction
7.Secondary Batteries
7.1.Batteries with Aqueous Electrolyte
7.1.1.Lead - Acid Batteries Reactions Reactions Effects Lead - Acid Batteries Performance Performance Design and Manufacturing Alloys Material, Post Seals, Valves Refilling Systems, Forced Acid Agitation Gas Recombination
7.1.2.Batteries with Alkaline Electrolyte - Cadmium Batteries Situation Reactions or Open-Circuit Voltage Heat Effect, Calorific Voltage Capacity (Specific Heat Content) Effects of Electrodes Design Assemblies, Power Packs Design Charging - Hydrogen Batteries - Metal Hydride Batteries Parameters Alloys - Iron Batteries - Zinc Batteries Oxide - Zinc Batteries
7.1.3.Rechargeable Batteries of Particular Design Chlorine - Zinc Battery Bromine - Zinc Battery Vanadium Redox Battery Air - Zinc Batteries
7.2.Batteries with Nonaqueous Electrolyte
7.2.1.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries or Coin Cells Batteries with Polymer Electrolytes with Glassy Electrolytes Batteries - Carbon Electrodes (Lithiated Carbons) Electrodes Based on Alloys Materials in the Positive Electrode (Cathode) Polymer Batteries Batteries
7.2.2.High-Temperature Batteries Sulfide - Lithium Batteries - Sulfur Batteries Chloride - Sodium (ZEBRA) Batteries
8.Battery Standards
8.2.National Standards
8.3.International Standards
8.3.1.Technical Committees and how they operate
8.3.2.TC21, SC21A , TC35, and Their Standards
8.3.3.TC21, SC21A, and TC35: Harmonization of Standards Vocabulary on Batteries of the Nomenclature Systems of Batteries, Present Status Nomenclature Systems for Batteries
8.3.4.Closing Remark
8.4.Annex 1: IEC Standards on Batteries
8.5.Annex 2: Designations by Manufacturers
8.6.Annex 3, Examples of IEC Nomenclature Systems for Batteries
8.7.Annex 4, Denoting Electrochemical Systems
9.Battery Disposal, Environmental Protection
9.1.Programs to Collect Disposed Batteries
9.1.1.The ISO Recycling Sign
9.1.2.Sorting of the Collected Batteries
9.2.Recycling of Batteries
9.2.1.Recycling of Lead - Acid Batteries
9.2.2.Recycling of Nickel - Cadmium Batteries
9.2.3.Recycling of Nickel - Metal Hydride Batteries
9.2.4.Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
9.2.5.Recycling of Primary Batteries of Mercury-Containing Batteries of Mercury-Free Batteries