Standard Article

Batteries

  1. Dietrich Berndt1,
  2. Dieter Spahrbier2

Published Online: 15 JUN 2001

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a03_343

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Berndt, D. and Spahrbier, D. 2001. Batteries. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    (formerly VARTA Batterie AG), Kronberg, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    (formerly VARTA Batterie AG), Kelkheim, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2001

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (23 SEP 2014)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.History
3.Fundamental Laws
3.1.Equilibrium or Thermodynamic Parameters
3.2.Current Flow, Kinetic Parameters
3.2.1.Electron Transfer
3.2.2.Tafel Lines
3.2.3.Influence of Temperature
3.3.Heat Effects
3.3.1.Reversible Heat Effect
3.3.2.Current Related Heat Effects (Joule Effect)
3.3.3.Heat Generation in Total
3.4.Heating of the Battery
4.Battery Properties and Characteristics
4.1.Cell and Battery
4.1.1.Active Material
4.1.1.1.Change of Volume
4.1.1.2.Change of Electrode Structure
4.1.2.Nonactive Components
4.1.2.1.Conducting Components
4.1.2.2.Nonconducting Components
4.2.Battery Parameters
4.2.1.Voltage
4.2.2.Capacity
4.2.2.1.Secondary Batteries
4.2.2.2.Primary Batteries
4.2.3.Energy Content
4.2.4.Internal Resistance and Power Output
4.2.5.Charge Parameters
4.2.6.Self-Discharge
4.2.6.1.Mixed Potential
4.2.6.2.Further Self-Discharge Mechanisms
4.2.6.3.Apparent Self-Discharge
4.2.6.4.Capacity Loss During Storage
5.Classification of Battery Systems
5.1.Classification by Electrolyte
5.2.Classification by Construction
5.2.1.External Construction
5.2.2.Internal Construction
6.Primary Batteries, Systems, and Application
6.1.Systems Employing an Aqueous Electrolyte
6.1.1.Batteries with Weak Acid Electrolyte
6.1.1.1.Carbon - Zinc Systems
6.1.1.1.1.General
6.1.1.1.2.Electrochemistry
6.1.1.1.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.1.1.1.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.1.1.1.5.Prospects
6.1.1.2.Air - Zinc System
6.1.1.2.1.General
6.1.1.2.2.Electrochemistry
6.1.1.2.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.1.1.2.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.1.1.2.5.Prospects
6.1.2.Batteries with “Neutral Electrolyte”
6.1.3.Batteries with Alkaline Electrolyte
6.1.3.1.Manganese Dioxide - Zinc System
6.1.3.1.1.General
6.1.3.1.2.Electrochemistry
6.1.3.1.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.1.3.1.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.1.3.1.5.Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Dioxide - Zinc System
6.1.3.1.6.Prospects
6.1.3.2.Silver Oxide - Zinc System
6.1.3.2.1.General
6.1.3.2.2.Electrochemistry
6.1.3.2.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.1.3.2.4.Batteries and Their Application
6.1.3.2.5.Prospects
6.1.3.3.Mercuric Oxide - Zinc System
6.1.3.3.1.General
6.1.3.3.2.Electrochemistry
6.1.3.3.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.1.3.3.4.Batteries and Application
6.1.3.3.5.Prospects
6.1.3.4.Alkaline Air - Zinc System
6.1.3.4.1.General
6.1.3.4.2.Electrochemistry
6.1.3.4.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.1.3.4.4.Air Access Opening: Its Seal and Diffusion Resistance
6.1.3.4.5.Batteries and Their Application
6.1.3.4.6.Prospects
6.2.Batteries with Nonaqueous Electrolyte
6.2.1.Batteries with Organic Electrolyte
6.2.1.1.Manganese Dioxide - Lithium System
6.2.1.1.1.General
6.2.1.1.2.Electrochemistry
6.2.1.1.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.2.1.1.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.2.1.1.5.Prospects
6.2.1.2.Carbon Poly-monofluoride - Lithium System
6.2.1.2.1.General
6.2.1.2.2.Electrochemistry
6.2.1.2.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.2.1.2.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.2.1.2.5.Prospects
6.2.1.3.Iron Disulfide - Lithium Systems
6.2.1.3.1.“1.5 V” Lithium Systems
6.2.1.3.2.Electrochemistry
6.2.1.3.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.2.1.3.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.2.1.3.5.Prospects
6.2.2.Batteries with Soluble Cathode
6.2.2.1.Sulfur Dioxide - Lithium System
6.2.2.1.1.General
6.2.2.1.2.Electrochemistry
6.2.2.1.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.2.2.1.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.2.2.1.5.Prospects
6.2.2.2.Thionyl Chloride - Lithium System
6.2.2.2.1.General
6.2.2.2.2.Electrochemistry
6.2.2.2.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.2.2.2.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.2.2.2.5.Prospects
6.2.3.Batteries with a Nonliquid Electrolyte
6.2.3.1.Polymer and Solid Electrolyte Systems
6.2.3.2.The LiI(Al2O3) Solid Electrolyte System
6.2.3.3.The Lithium - Iodine System
6.2.3.3.1.General
6.2.3.3.2.Electrochemistry
6.2.3.3.3.System-Immanent Properties
6.2.3.3.4.Batteries and Their Applications
6.2.3.3.5.Prospects
6.3.Reserve Batteries
6.3.1.Principles
6.3.1.1.System Activation with Liquid Electrolyte
6.3.1.1.1.Water-Activated Batteries
6.3.1.1.2.KOH Activated Batteries
6.3.1.1.3.Ampoule-Type Batteries
6.3.1.1.4.Battery Activation by Ammonia
6.3.1.2.Thermal Batteries
6.3.1.2.1.General
6.3.1.2.2.Systems
6.3.1.2.3.Pyrotechnic Heat Sources
6.3.1.2.4.Battery Construction
6.3.1.2.5.Batteries
6.3.2.Prospects
7.Secondary Batteries
7.1.Batteries with Aqueous Electrolyte
7.1.1.Lead - Acid Batteries
7.1.1.1.Charge/Discharge Reactions
7.1.1.2.Secondary Reactions
7.1.1.3.Self-Discharge
7.1.1.4.Heat Effects
7.1.1.5.Valve-Regulated Lead - Acid Batteries
7.1.1.6.Discharge Performance
7.1.1.7.Charge Performance
7.1.1.8.Technical Design and Manufacturing
7.1.1.9.Lead Alloys
7.1.1.10.Separators
7.1.1.11.Container Material, Post Seals
7.1.1.12.Vents, Valves
7.1.1.13.Water Refilling Systems, Forced Acid Agitation
7.1.1.14.Catalytic Gas Recombination
7.1.2.Batteries with Alkaline Electrolyte
7.1.2.1.Nickel - Cadmium Batteries
7.1.2.1.1.Thermodynamic Situation
7.1.2.1.2.Charge/Discharge Reactions
7.1.2.1.3.Equilibrium or Open-Circuit Voltage
7.1.2.1.4.Reversible Heat Effect, Calorific Voltage
7.1.2.1.5.Heat Capacity (Specific Heat Content)
7.1.2.1.6.Heat Effects
7.1.2.1.7.Self-Discharge
7.1.2.1.8.Types of Electrodes
7.1.2.1.9.Cell Design
7.1.2.1.10.Cell Assemblies, Power Packs
7.1.2.1.11.Valve Design
7.1.2.1.12.Controlled Charging
7.1.2.2.Nickel - Hydrogen Batteries
7.1.2.3.Nickel - Metal Hydride Batteries
7.1.2.3.1.Thermodynamic Parameters
7.1.2.3.2.Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloys
7.1.2.3.3.Design
7.1.2.4.Nickel - Iron Batteries
7.1.2.5.Nickel - Zinc Batteries
7.1.2.6.Silver Oxide - Zinc Batteries
7.1.3.Rechargeable Batteries of Particular Design
7.1.3.1.The Chlorine - Zinc Battery
7.1.3.2.The Bromine - Zinc Battery
7.1.3.3.The Vanadium Redox Battery
7.1.3.4.Rechargeable Air - Zinc Batteries
7.2.Batteries with Nonaqueous Electrolyte
7.2.1.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
7.2.1.1.Button or Coin Cells
7.2.1.2.Lithium Batteries with Polymer Electrolytes
7.2.1.3.Batteries with Glassy Electrolytes
7.2.1.4.Lithium-Ion Batteries
7.2.1.4.1.Lithium - Carbon Electrodes (Lithiated Carbons)
7.2.1.4.2.Negative Electrodes Based on Alloys
7.2.1.4.3.Active Materials in the Positive Electrode (Cathode)
7.2.1.4.4.Electrolytes
7.2.1.4.5.Separators
7.2.1.4.6.Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries
7.2.1.4.7.Practical Batteries
7.2.2.High-Temperature Batteries
7.2.2.1.Iron Sulfide - Lithium Batteries
7.2.2.2.Sodium - Sulfur Batteries
7.2.2.3.Nickel Chloride - Sodium (ZEBRA) Batteries
8.Battery Standards
8.1.General
8.2.National Standards
8.3.International Standards
8.3.1.Technical Committees and how they operate
8.3.2.TC21, SC21A , TC35, and Their Standards
8.3.3.TC21, SC21A, and TC35: Harmonization of Standards
8.3.3.1.IEC Vocabulary on Batteries
8.3.3.2.Harmonization of the Nomenclature Systems
8.3.3.3.Designation of Batteries, Present Status
8.3.3.4.IEC Nomenclature Systems for Batteries
8.3.4.Closing Remark
8.4.Annex 1: IEC Standards on Batteries
8.5.Annex 2: Designations by Manufacturers
8.6.Annex 3, Examples of IEC Nomenclature Systems for Batteries
8.7.Annex 4, Denoting Electrochemical Systems
9.Battery Disposal, Environmental Protection
9.1.Programs to Collect Disposed Batteries
9.1.1.The ISO Recycling Sign
9.1.2.Sorting of the Collected Batteries
9.2.Recycling of Batteries
9.2.1.Recycling of Lead - Acid Batteries
9.2.2.Recycling of Nickel - Cadmium Batteries
9.2.3.Recycling of Nickel - Metal Hydride Batteries
9.2.4.Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
9.2.5.Recycling of Primary Batteries
9.2.5.1.Recycling of Mercury-Containing Batteries
9.2.5.2.Recycling of Mercury-Free Batteries