Standard Article

You have free access to this content

Beer

  1. Hans Michael Eßlinger1,
  2. Ludwig Narziß2

Published Online: 15 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a03_421.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Eßlinger, H. M. and Narziß, L. 2009. Beer. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Freiberger Brauhaus GmbH, Freiberg/Sachsen, Germany

  2. 2

    Freising, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2009
Table 1. The chemical composition of brewing barley and malt (mass fractions in %)
 Malting barleyMalt
 As isDry matterAs isDry matter
Moisture12 – 14 4 – 5 
Starch55 – 5764 – 6656 – 5858 – 60
Other non-nitrogen extract compounds12 – 1414 – 1616 – 1817 – 19
Protein9 – 10.510 – 128.5 – 109 – 11
Fiber44.555.2
Minerals2.52.82.42.5
Fat22.322.1
Table 2. Chemical composition of hops (wt %)
 As isDry matter
Water9 – 12 
α-Acids2 – 152.2 – 11.5
β-Acids2 – 102.2 – 11.2
Hop oils0.5 – 2.50.6 – 2.8
Non-nitrogen extract compounds4 – 94.5 – 10
Protein15 – 2113 – 22
Fiber10 – 1711 – 19
Polyphenols3 – 84.5 – 16
Minerals7 – 118 – 12
Lipids and waxesup to 3up to 3.4
Fatty acids0.05 – 0.20.06 – 0.22
Table 3. Malt enzymes and their behavior during mashing
   Optimum conditions in mash 
EnzymeCAS registry numberE.C. numberpHt, °CInactivation temperature, °C
Oxidoreductases

Peroxidase

[9003-99-0]1.11.1.7 40 – 5065

Lipoxygenase

[9029-60-1]1.13.11.126.54070

Polyphenoloxidase

 1.14.18.1 60 – 6580
Hydrolases

Lipase

[9001-62-1]3.1.1.36.835 – 4060

Acid phosphatase

[9001-77-8]3.1.3.24.5 – 5.050 – 5370

α-Amylase

[9000-90-2]3.2.1.15.6 – 5.870 – 7580

β-Amylase

[9000-91-3]3.2.1.25.4 – 5.660 – 6570

endo-β(1 [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] 4)- Glucanase

[9074-99-1]3.2.1.84.7 – 5.040 – 5055

Cellulase

[9012-54-8]3.2.1.44.5 – 5.02020

Laminarinase

[9025-37-0]3.2.1.65.03750

Limit dextrinase

[9025-70-1]3.2.1.115.155 – 6065

Maltase

[9001-42-7]3.2.1.206.035 – 4040
β-Mannosidase[9025-43-8]3.2.1.253 – 65570

Invertase

[9001-57-4]3.2.1.265.55055

exo- and endo-Xylanases

 3.2.1.375.045 

endo- β-(1 [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] 3)- Glucanase

[9044-93-3]3.2.1.394.7 – 5.040 – 4555

exo- β-Glucanases

 3.2.14.54040
Pullulanase[9012-47-9]3.2.1.415.0 – 5.24070
Arabinosidase[9067-74-7]3.2.1.554.6 – 4.74060
β-Glucan-solubilase

with esterase activity

 3.26.6 – 7.06273

with carboxypeptidase activity

 3.44.6 – 4.96273

Aminopeptidases

 3.4.17.240 – 4555

Carboxypeptidases

 3.4.25.250 – 6070

Dipeptidases

 3.4.37.2 – 8.240 – 4555

Endopeptidases

 3.4.45.0 – 5.250 – 6070
Table 4. Volume and mass changes during malting
 Moisture content, wt %Volume, hLMass, kg
Malting barley14100100
Steeped barley41145145
Green malt48220147
Kilned malt3.511879
Stored malt4.712080
Table 5. The composition of pale lager wort (12 %) made from barley malt
Carbohydrates (100 %):

Hexoses

7 – 9 %

Sucrose

3 %

Maltose

43 – 47 %

Maltotriose

11 – 13 %

Lower dextrins

6 – 12 %

Higher dextrins

19 – 24 %

Pentosans

3 – 4 %

Gums

0.2 %
Nitrogen compounds:

Total nitrogen

950 – 1150 mg/L

High molecular mass nitrogen

200 – 300 mg/L

Low molecular mass nitrogen

550 – 700 mg/L

Free amino nitrogen

200 – 250 mg/L
 (about 22 % of total N)
Bitter substances25 – 35 EBC bitter units
 (pils 40 – 50 EBC)
Polyphenols:

Total polyphenols

180 – 250 mg/L

Anthocyanidines

70 – 110 mg/L
Minerals15 – 20 mg/L
 (80 % inorganic, 20 % organic)
Zinc0.1 – 0.25 mg/L
pH5.0 – 5.7
Viscosity (20 °C)1.7 – 2.0 mPa · s
Table 6. The composition of bottom-fermented pale lager beer brewed by 100 % malt and 12 % extract of original wort
  • *

    Consisting of 80–85 % carbohydrates; 4 – 5.2 % proteins; 3.5 % glycerol; 3 – 4 % minerals; 2–3 % tannins, bitter substances, and coloring malt; 0.7 – 1 % organic acids; and a small amount of vitamins.

Extract of original wort12.0 wt % (125.6 g/L)
Attenuation limit (apparent)78 – 85 %
Real degree of attenuation63 – 68 %
Apparent residual extract1.7 – 3.0 wt %
Real residual extract*2.0 – 3.5 wt %
Alcohol concentration3.5 – 4.5 wt %
Fermentation by products

Higher alcohols

60 – 120 mg/L

Acetic acid

120 – 200 mg/L

Formic acid

20 mg/L

Esters

20 – 50 mg/L

Aldehydes

5 – 10 mg/L

Diacetal and 2-aceolactate

< 0.1 mg/L

Acetoin

< 3.0 mg/L
Total nitrogen700 – 900 mg/L
Heat coagulable nitrogen15 – 22 mg/L
High molecular mass nitrogen150 – 250 mg/L
 (21 – 22 % of total N)
Low molecular mass nitrogen300 – 600 mg/L
Free amino nitrogen80 – 160 mg/L
Bitter substances16 – 25 EBC bitter units
Total polyphenols130 – 180 mg/L
Anthocyanidines40 – 80 mg/L
pH4.3 – 4.6
Viscosity (20 °C)1.4 – 1.7 mPa · s
Surface tension42 – 48 dyn cm−1
Table 7. The largest malting companies
CompanyCountry of originProduction capacity, 106 t/aGlobal market share, %
Groupe SouffletFrance15008.2
Groupe MalteuropFrance13307.3
Cargill IncorporationUSA12907.1
United Malt HoldingsUSA/Canada11256.2
IMCUSA 9255.1
Table 8. Utilization of hops and hop products
Hop cones5 %
Hop pellets45 %
Pre-isomerized hop pellets10 %
Hop extract27 %
Pre-isomerized hop extract3 %
Downstream products10 %
Table 9. Top hop companies and their global market shares
Barth-Haas Group35 %
Hopsteiner Group30 %
Yakima Chief10 %
HVG10 %
Table 10. Beer production volume, per capita consumption and number of breweries in 2004
CountryProduction volume, 106 hL/aPer capita consumption, L/aNumber of breweries
China291 17 500
USA232 791800
Germany1061171279
Brazil 86 50  43
Russia 85 58 300
Mexico 69 53  22
Japan 66 56  33
UK 59 99  60
Spain 31 88  21
Poland 28 77  65
Americas492  
Europe529  
Asia440  
Africa 71  
Australia and Pacific 21  
Table 11. World top ten brewers in 2004
CompanyCountry of originAnnual output, 106 hLGlobal market share
InBevBelgium/Brazil183.711.9 %
SAB MillerSouth Africa/USA178.311.6 %
Anheuser-BuschUSA144.2 9.3 %
HeinekenThe Netherlands117.5 7.6 %
CarlsbergDenmark 67.6 4.4 %
Coors and MolsonUSA/Canada 57.6 3.7 %
Scottish & NewcastleUK 51.4 3.3 %
ModeloMexico 42.8 2.8 %
Tsingtao (group)China 37.1 2.4 %
KirinJapan 36.0 2.3 %
Table 12. World top brewers by region 2004 (106 hL)
EuropeThe AmericasAsia/PacificAfrica/Middle East
CompanySalesCompanySalesCompanySalesCompanySales
Heineken 80.0Anheuser-Busch124.9SAB Miller 37.3SAB Miller33.1
InBev 69.1InBev 91.2Tsingtao (Group) 36.9Heineken13.5
Carlsberg 58.2SAB Miller 73.1Kirin 34.6Castle/BGI12.2
Scottish & Newcastle 50.0Coors and Molson 45.1Asahi 31.6Diageo (Guinness) 7.7
SAB Miller 34.8Modelo 41.8Beijing Yanjing 28.9  
Radeberger 16.8FEMSA 25.6InBev 22.9  
Anadolu Group (Efes) 13.6Heineken 14.5San Miguel Corps 20.7  
Coors and Molson 12.4Polar 14.4Anheuser-Busch 16.2  
Mahou 10.6Schincariol 13.4Henan Gold Star 12.3  
Diageo (Guinness)  8.4Papst/S & P  8.8Suntory 11.4  
 353.9 452.8 252.8  
Table 13. World Top ten beer brands (2004)
RankBrand nameBrand ownerSales, 106 hLMarket share
1Bud (range)Anheuser-Busch48.203.12 %
2BudweiserAnheuser-Busch47.403.07 %
3Skol (Brazil vol. only)InBev31.202.02 %
4CoronaModelo28.201.83 %
5HeinekenHeineken22.801.48 %
6Coors LightCoors and Molson21.201.37 %
7Miller LITESAB Miller20.701.34 %
8Brahma ChoppInBev19.701.28 %
9Super DryAsahi19.601.27 %
10Busch (range)Anheuser-Busch15.801.02 %
Table 14. Productivity and specific energy and water consumption as an a function of brewery size
Annual brewery output>106 hL>105 hL>104 hL
Productivity, hL per employee10 0004 0002 000
Current consumption, kW h/hL7911
Heat consumption, kW h/hL233040
Water consumption, hL/hL3.54.55