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Biotechnology

  1. Thomas Becker1,
  2. Dietmar Breithaupt2,
  3. Horst Werner Doelle3,
  4. Armin Fiechter4,
  5. Martijn van Griensven12,
  6. Cornelia Kasper5,
  7. Stephan Lütz6,
  8. Ralf Pörtner7,
  9. Hans-Günther Schlegel8,
  10. Dieter Sell9,
  11. Sakayu Shimizu10,
  12. Frank Stahl5,
  13. Kirstin Suck5,
  14. Roland Ulber11,
  15. Joachim Wegener13,
  16. Kerstin Würges6,
  17. Hideaki Yamada10,
  18. Holger Zorn14

Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a04_107.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Becker, T., Breithaupt, D., Doelle, H. W., Fiechter, A., van Griensven, M., Kasper, C., Lütz, S., Pörtner, R., Schlegel, H.-G., Sell, D., Shimizu, S., Stahl, F., Suck, K., Ulber, R., Wegener, J., Würges, K., Yamada, H. and Zorn, H. 2007. Biotechnology. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institute of Process Analytics, University of Hohenheim, Germany

  2. 2

    Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hohenheim, Germany

  3. 3

    Department of Microbiology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia

  4. 4

    Institute of Biotechnology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich, Switzerland

  5. 5

    Institute of Technical Chemistry, University of Hannover, Germany

  6. 6

    Institute of Biotechnology 2, Research Centre Jülich, Germany

  7. 7

    Institute for Bioprocess Engineering, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany

  8. 8

    Institute of Microbiology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

  9. 9

    DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt, Germany

  10. 10

    Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

  11. 11

    Institute of Bioprocess Engineering, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany

  12. 12

    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute, Wien, Austria

  13. 13

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Münster, Germany

  14. 14

    Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hannover, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 JUL 2009)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1Introduction
2Basics in Microbiology
2.1Microbiology – the Science of Microscopic Life Forms
2.2.Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Microorganisms
2.2.1Definition and Survey
2.2.2Bacteria
2.2.3Archaea
2.2.4Morphological and Physiological Properties for the Identification of Prokaryotic Species
2.2.5Eukaryotic Microorganisms
2.2.5.1Definition
2.2.5.2Fungi
3Metabolism
3.1Microbial Systems Biology
3.2Energy Production
3.3Substrate Transport
3.4Catabolism
3.4.1Photosynthesis
3.4.2Chemosynthesis
3.4.3Carbohydrate Metabolism
3.4.4Aerobic Processes
3.4.5Fats and Fatty Acid Metabolism
3.4.6Hydrocarbon Metabolism
3.4.7Amino Acid Metabolism
3.4.8Anaerobic Metabolic Processes
3.4.9Single-Carbon-Compound Metabolism
3.4.10Inorganic Metabolism
3.5Biosynthesis
3.5.1Amino Acids
3.5.2Lipids
3.5.3RNA and DNA
3.6Regulation
4Metabolic Engineering
4.1Analysis of the Transcriptom, Proteome, and Metabolome
4.1.1Gene Expression Analysis using DNA Microarrays
4.1.2Fabrication of DNA microarrays
4.1.3Proteome Analysis using Protein Microarrays
4.2Metabolome Analysis and Metabolite Flux Analysis
4.3Design and Production of Genetically Optimized Strains for Production – In Vitro Mutagenesis
4.4Random Mutagenesis, Isolation and Selection of Mutants
4.5Types of Mutants and Selection Principles
4.5.1Auxotrophic Mutants
4.5.2Regulatory Mutants
4.5.3Other Selection Methods
4.5.4Targeted or Site-Directed Mutagenesis
5Cultivation and Bioprocesses
5.1Isolation of Microorganisms
5.2Requirements for Growth
5.2.1Chemical Composition of Bacterial Cells
5.2.2Carbon and Energy Sources
5.2.12Media preparation
5.3Sterilization
5.4Types of Bioprocesses
5.4.1Surface Culture
5.4.2Submerged Culture
5.5Process Layout
5.5.1Reactors
5.5.2Containments for Anaerobic Processes
5.5.3Reactors for Aerobic Processes
5.5.4Inoculation
5.5.5Operation Modes
6Biocatalysis and Biotransformation
6.1Introduction
6.2Classification of Biocatalysts
6.3History
6.4Characteristics of Enzyme Reactions Used in Biotransformations
6.5Types of Biocatalysts and Reaction Systems
6.5.1Biotransformation with Growing Cultures
6.5.2Biotransformation Conversion with Previously Grown Cells
6.5.2.1Vegetative or Washed Cells
6.5.2.2Permealized Cells
6.5.2.3Dried Cells
6.5.3Biotransformation with Spores
6.5.4Biotransformation with Immobilized Cells
6.5.5Biotransformation with Cell-free Enzymes or Purified Enzymes
6.5.6Multistep Reactions Using Different Biocatalysts
6.5.7Multiphase Reaction Systems
6.6Process Design
6.6.1General Considerations
6.6.1.1Evaluating Enzyme Potential
6.6.1.2Finding Suitable Enzymes
6.6.1.3Substrates
6.6.1.4Media
6.6.2Selection of Biocatalysts
6.6.2.1Screening
6.6.2.2Enrichment
6.6.2.3Molecular Engineering
6.7Improvement of Conversion Processes
6.8Conclusion and Outlook
7Downstream Processing
7.1Sample Disruption
7.2Solid–Liquid Separations
7.3Product Recovery
7.4Solvent Extraction
8Monitoring and Modeling of Bioprocesses
8.1Characteristics of Bioprocesses
8.1.1System Definition
8.1.2System Description
8.1.3Dynamics of Biosystems and Real-Time Considerations
8.2Biotechnological Measurement Systems
8.2.1Process Requirements Concerning Measuring Quantities
8.2.2Online Sensing Devices
8.2.3Further Aspects Concerning Measuring Systems
8.3Cognitive Computing
8.3.1Fuzzy Logic Systems
8.3.2Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
8.4Modeling Aspects of Biological Systems
8.4.1Steps in Creating a Model
8.4.2Reasons for Making a Model
8.4.3Different Types and Basic Approaches for Building a Model
9Special Applications in Biotechnology
9.1Mammalian Cell Culture Technology
9.1.1Introduction
9.1.2Products from Mammalian Cells
9.1.3Cell Types
9.1.4Growth Medium for Cell Culture
9.1.5Small-Scale Culture Systems for Routine Use
9.1.6Types of Bioreactors
9.1.7Process Strategies
9.1.8Downstream Processes
9.1.9Regulatory and Safety Issues
9.2Tissue Engineering
9.2.1Application of Tissue Engineering
9.2.2Principle of Tissue Engineering
9.2.3Strategies
9.2.4The Essentials
9.2.5Cells
9.2.6Biomatrices
9.2.7Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering
9.2.8Growing New from Old
9.3Biotechnology and Food
9.3.1Production of Food Additives by Cell Culture Systems
9.3.1.1Amino Acids
9.3.1.2Organic Acids
9.3.1.3Vitamins
9.3.1.4Sweet Compounds
9.3.1.5Sugar Alcohols
9.3.1.6Microbial Saccharides
9.3.1.7Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA)
9.3.1.8Lactulose
9.3.2Enzyme-Catalyzed Processes
9.3.2.1Starch-Modifying Enzymes
9.3.2.2Lipases
9.3.2.3Pectin-Degrading Enzymes
9.3.2.4Chymosin (Aspartic Protease)
9.4Biotechnology and Health
9.4.1Individualized Medicine
9.4.2Clinical Diagnosis as Indicated in Genetic Anomalies in Cancer
9.4.3Pharmaceutical Development
9.4.4Define Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity
9.4.5Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms
10Concluding Remarks
11Acknowledgement

Biotechnology can be regarded as one of the key technologies of the 21st century. It is the commercial application of living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plant cells, viruses, and mammalian cells or their products, which involves the deliberate manipulation of their DNA molecules. This article gives an introduction into the basics in microbiology and provides an exhaustive description of the relevant microbial species and metabolic pathways. Identification, analysis, and manipulation of the genome, proteome, and metabolome is described, and cultivation requirements as well as process parameters discussed. Biotransformation and enzyme technology plays a central role in industrial biotechnology, and a focus is given on the development of molecular engineering techniques and new screening methods. Computational Biochemistry comprises the definition, monitoring, and modeling of bioprocesses. Examples of biotechnology applications include mammalian cell technology, tissue engineering, and the production of relevant food additives as well as of various medical and pharmaceutical products. In conclusion, biotechnology offers manifold possibilities in industrial and medical applications.