Biotechnology, 1. General
Published Online: 15 JUL 2009
Copyright © 2002 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
How to Cite
Doelle, H. W., Fiechter, A., Schlegel, G., Sell, D., Shimizu, S., Ulber, R. and Yamada, H. 2009. Biotechnology, 1. General. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 JUL 2009
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The article contains sections titled:
|2.||Basics in Microbiology|
|2.1.||Microbiology – the Science of Microscopic Life Forms|
|2.2.||Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Microorganisms|
|2.2.1.||Definition and Survey|
|2.2.4.||Morphological and Physiological Properties for the Identification of Prokaryotic Species|
|3.1.||Microbial Systems Biology|
|3.4.5.||Fats and Fatty Acid Metabolism|
|3.4.7.||Amino Acid Metabolism|
|3.4.8.||Anaerobic Metabolic Processes|
|3.5.3.||RNA and DNA|
Biotechnology can be regarded as one of the key technologies of the 21st century. It is the commercial application of living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plant cells, viruses, and mammalian cells or their products, which involves the deliberate manipulation of their DNA molecules. This article gives an introduction into the basics in microbiology and provides an exhaustive description of the relevant microbial species and metabolic pathways. Identification, analysis, and manipulation of the genome, proteome, and metabolome is described, and cultivation requirements as well as process parameters discussed. Biotransformation and enzyme technology plays a central role in industrial biotechnology, and a focus is given on the development of molecular engineering techniques and new screening methods. Computational Biochemistry comprises the definition, monitoring, and modeling of bioprocesses. Examples of biotechnology applications include mammalian cell technology, tissue engineering, and the production of relevant food additives as well as of various medical and pharmaceutical products. In conclusion, biotechnology offers manifold possibilities in industrial and medical applications.