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Biotechnology, 1. General

  1. Horst Werner Doelle1,
  2. Armin Fiechter2,
  3. Günther Schlegel3,
  4. Dieter Sell4,
  5. Sakayu Shimizu5,
  6. Roland Ulber6,
  7. Hideaki Yamada5

Published Online: 15 JUL 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a04_107.pub3

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Doelle, H. W., Fiechter, A., Schlegel, G., Sell, D., Shimizu, S., Ulber, R. and Yamada, H. 2009. Biotechnology, 1. General. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Queensland, Department of Microbiology, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

  2. 2

    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Institute of Biotechnology, Zürich, Switzerland

  3. 3

    University of Göttingen, Institute of Microbiology, Göttingen, Germany

  4. 4

    DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt, Germany

  5. 5

    Kyoto University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyoto, Japan

  6. 6

    University of Kaiserslautern, Institute of Bioprocess Engineering, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2009

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The article contains sections titled:

2.Basics in Microbiology
2.1.Microbiology – the Science of Microscopic Life Forms
2.2.Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Microorganisms
2.2.1.Definition and Survey
2.2.4.Morphological and Physiological Properties for the Identification of Prokaryotic Species
2.2.5.Eukaryotic Microorganisms
3.1.Microbial Systems Biology
3.2.Energy Production
3.3.Substrate Transport
3.4.3.Carbohydrate Metabolism
3.4.4.Aerobic Processes
3.4.5.Fats and Fatty Acid Metabolism
3.4.6.Hydrocarbon Metabolism
3.4.7.Amino Acid Metabolism
3.4.8.Anaerobic Metabolic Processes
3.4.9.Single-Carbon-Compound Metabolism
3.4.10.Inorganic Metabolism
3.5.1.Amino Acids
3.5.3.RNA and DNA

Biotechnology can be regarded as one of the key technologies of the 21st century. It is the commercial application of living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plant cells, viruses, and mammalian cells or their products, which involves the deliberate manipulation of their DNA molecules. This article gives an introduction into the basics in microbiology and provides an exhaustive description of the relevant microbial species and metabolic pathways. Identification, analysis, and manipulation of the genome, proteome, and metabolome is described, and cultivation requirements as well as process parameters discussed. Biotransformation and enzyme technology plays a central role in industrial biotechnology, and a focus is given on the development of molecular engineering techniques and new screening methods. Computational Biochemistry comprises the definition, monitoring, and modeling of bioprocesses. Examples of biotechnology applications include mammalian cell technology, tissue engineering, and the production of relevant food additives as well as of various medical and pharmaceutical products. In conclusion, biotechnology offers manifold possibilities in industrial and medical applications.