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Bread and Other Baked Products

  1. Dietmar Sievert1,
  2. R. Carl Hoseney2,
  3. Jan A. Delcour3

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a04_331.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Sievert, D., Hoseney, R. C. and Delcour, J. A. 2007. Bread and Other Baked Products. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Nestlé Product Technology Centre Orbe, Orbe, Switzerland

  2. 2

    R&R Research Services, Inc., Manhattan, KS, United States

  3. 3

    Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Wheat Types and their Uses
3.Wheat Breeding and Biotechnology
3.1.Traditional Breeding
3.2.Biotechnology
4.Milling of Wheat
5.Wheat Flour
5.1.Flour Constituents
5.1.1.Starch
5.1.2.Protein
5.1.3.Lipids
5.1.4.Nonstarch Polysaccharides (NSP)
5.1.5.Ash
5.2.Chemical Flour Treatments
6.Evaluation of Flours
6.1.Physical Dough Tests
6.1.1.Mixing Curves
6.1.2.Flour Strength
6.2.α-Amylase Activity
7.Dough Formation
7.1.Underlying Mechanisms of Dough Formation
7.2.Role of Proteins in Dough Formation
7.3.Thermodynamic View of Dough Mixing
7.4.Aeration of Dough during Mixing
8.Role of Bread Ingredients
9.Bread and Dough Making Processes
9.1.Straight Dough
9.2.Sponge and Dough
9.3.Liquid Preferments
9.4.No-Time Processes
9.5.Sour Dough
9.6.Frozen Dough
10.Gas Production and Retention
10.1.Leavening Mechanisms
10.2.Fermentation and Gas Production by Yeast
10.3.Gas Production by Chemical Leavening
10.4.Gas Retention
11.Molding and Proofing
12.Baking
12.1.Transformation of Dough into Bread
12.2.Crumb Grain Formation
12.3.Crust Formation
12.4.Changes of Flour Constituents
13.Flavor of Baked Products
14.Glass Transition and its Role in Baking
15.Bread Varieties and Speciality Breads
16.Soft Wheat Products
16.1.Technology of Cookie and Cracker Production
16.2.Cookies
16.2.1.Cookie Types
16.2.2.Underlying Mechanisms of Cookie Baking
16.2.2.1.Texture Development of Cookies
16.2.2.2.Development of the Cookie Surface Pattern
16.3.Crackers
16.4.Wafers
16.5.American Biscuits
16.6.Cakes
16.6.1.Cake Making and Underlying Mechanisms of Cake Baking
16.6.2.Role of Cake Ingredients
16.7.Pastries
16.7.1.Short Pastry
16.7.2.Puff Pastry
17.Retention of Baked Product Quality
17.1.Staling
17.2.Microbial Spoilage
17.2.1.Retention of Quality
17.2.2.Chemical Preservatives
18.Trends in Baking
18.1.U.S. Bakery Market
18.2.Western European Bakery Market
18.3.Consumer Demands and Product Trends

This keyword provides information on the different aspects of the industrial conversion of cereal grains (predominantly wheat) into final baked products. The emphasis is on bread systems, but cookie, cake, and pastry products are also dealt with. The different wheat types and their classification systems, the milling process, and the flour constituents are described. The quality criteria of flour and their assessment are dealt with, different aspects of dough formation are discussed and a description of different bread making processes follows. The important aspect of gas production by yeast, chemical leavening or by other means is discussed as are the transformations during the baking process.