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Carbohydrates: Occurrence, Structures and Chemistry

  1. Frieder W. Lichtenthaler

Published Online: 15 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a05_079.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Lichtenthaler, F. W. 2010. Carbohydrates: Occurrence, Structures and Chemistry. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Clemens-Schöpf-Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2010

Abstract

This keyword gives a concise overview on the natural occurrence of mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, on their multifaceted structures with emphasis on stereochemical features, and, most notably, on the core topics of modern preparative carbohydrate chemistry. It is hoped to serve as a quick informational guide to carbohydrate and noncarbohydrate chemists alike.

1.Introduction
2.Monosaccharides
2.1.Structure and Configuration
2.2.Ring Forms of Sugars: Cyclic Hemiacetals
2.3.Conformation of Pyranoses and Furanoses
2.4.Structural Variations of Monosaccharides
3.Oligosaccharides
3.1.Common Disaccharides
3.2.Cyclodextrins
4.Polysaccharides
5.Nomenclature
6.General Reactions
6.1.Hydrolysis
6.2.Dehydration
6.3.Isomerization
6.4.Decomposition
7.Reactions at the Carbonyl Group
7.1.Glycosides
7.2.Thioacetals and Thioglycosides
7.3.Glycosylamines, Hydrazones, and Osazones
7.4.Chain Extension
7.5.Chain Degradation
7.6.Reductions to Alditols
7.7.Oxidation
8.Reactions at the Hydroxyl Groups
8.1.Ethers
8.2.Esters of Inorganic Acids
8.3.Esters of Organic Acids
8.4.Acylated Glycosyl Halides
8.5.Acetals