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Carbon, 1. General

  1. Hubert Jäger1,
  2. Wilhelm Frohs1,
  3. Gerd Collin2,
  4. Ferdinand von Sturm3,
  5. Otto Vohler 3,
  6. Gabriele Nutsch4

Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a05_095.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Jäger, H., Frohs, W., Collin, G., von Sturm, F., Vohler, O. and Nutsch, G. 2010. Carbon, 1. General. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    SGL Carbon GmbH, Meitingen, Germany

  2. 2

    DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main, Germany

  3. 3

    former SIGRI GmbH, Meitingen, Germany

  4. 4

    former Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

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Abstract

This keyword gives a short description of the element carbon and its allotropic forms diamond, graphite (the most important ones), chaoite and fullerenes. Information on the isotopic composition, the position in the periodic table, the atomic structure and mass, and the occurrence and abundance of carbon in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere is provided. The molecular structures and properties of the carbon modifications are described briefly. The keyword ends with an overview of the history of discovery of the carbon allotropic forms, of charcoal, carbon black and carbon-derived fibers, and of their utilization by mankind.