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Heterogeneous Catalysis and Solid Catalysts

  1. Olaf Deutschmann1,
  2. Helmut Knözinger2,
  3. Karl Kochloefl3,
  4. Thomas Turek4

Published Online: 15 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a05_313.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Deutschmann, O., Knözinger, H., Kochloefl, K. and Turek, T. 2009. Heterogeneous Catalysis and Solid Catalysts. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institut für Technische Chemie und Polymerchemie, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Engesserstr. 20, Karlsruhe, Germany

  2. 2

    Department Chemie, Universität München, Butenandtstr. 5 – 13 (Haus E), München, Germany

  3. 3

    Schwarzenbergstr. 15, Rosenheim, Germany

  4. 4

    Institut für Chemische Verfahrenstechnik, TU Clausthal, Leibnizstr. 17, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2009

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Types of Catalysis
1.2.Catalysis as a Scientific Discipline
1.3.Industrial Importance of Catalysis
1.4.History of Catalysis
2.Theoretical Aspects
2.1.Principles and Concepts
2.1.1.Sabatier's Principle
2.1.2.The Principle of Active Sites
2.1.3.Surface Coordination Chemistry
2.1.4.Modifiers and Promoters
2.1.5.Active Phase – Support Interactions
2.1.6.Spillover Phenomena
2.1.7.Phase-Cooperation and Site-Isolation Concepts
2.1.8.Shape-Selectivity Concept
2.1.9.Principles of the Catalytic Cycle
2.2.Kinetics of Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions
2.2.1.Concepts of Reaction Kinetics (Microkinetics)
2.2.2.Application of Microkinetic Analysis
2.2.3.Langmuir – Hinshelwood – Hougen – Watson Kinetics
2.2.4.Activity and Selectivity
2.3.Molecular Modeling in Heterogeneous Catalysis
2.3.1.Density Functional Theory
2.3.2.Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation
2.3.3.Mean-Field Approximation
2.3.4.Development of Multistep Surface Reaction Mechanisms
3.Development of Solid Catalysts
4.Classification of Solid Catalysts
4.1.Unsupported (Bulk) Catalysts
4.1.1.Metal Oxides
4.1.1.1.Simple Binary Oxides
4.1.1.2.Complex Multicomponent Oxides
4.1.2.Metals and Metal Alloys
4.1.3.Carbides and Nitrides
4.1.4.Carbons
4.1.5.Ion-Exchange Resins and Ionomers
4.1.6.Molecularly Imprinted Catalysts
4.1.7.Metal – Organic Frameworks
4.1.8.Metal Salts
4.2.Supported Catalysts
4.2.1.Supports
4.2.2.Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts
4.2.3.Surface-Modified Oxides
4.2.4.Supported Metal Catalysts
4.2.5.Supported Sulfide Catalysts
4.2.6.Hybrid Catalysts
4.2.7.Ship-in-a-Bottle Catalysts
4.2.8.Polymerization Catalysts
4.3.Coated Catalysts
5.Production of Heterogeneous Catalysts
5.1.Unsupported Catalysts
5.2.Supported Catalysts
5.2.1.Supports
5.2.2.Preparation of Supported Catalysts
5.3.Unit Operations in Catalyst Production
6.Characterization of Solid Catalysts
6.1.Physical Properties
6.1.1.Surface Area and Porosity
6.1.2.Particle Size and Dispersion
6.1.3.Structure and Morphology
6.1.4.Local Environment of Elements
6.2.Chemical Properties
6.2.1.Surface Chemical Composition
6.2.2.Valence States and Redox Properties
6.2.3.Acidity and Basicity
6.3.Mechanical Properties
6.4.Characterization of Solid Catalysts under Working Conditions
6.4.1.Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP Reactor)
6.4.2.Use of Isotopes
6.4.3.Use of Substituents, Selective Feeding, and Poisoning
6.4.4.Spatially Resolved Analysis of the Fluid Phase over a Catalyst
6.4.5.Spectroscopic Techniques
7.Design and Technical Operation of Solid Catalysts
7.1.Design Criteria for Solid Catalysts
7.2.Catalytic Reactors
7.2.1.Classification of Reactors
7.2.2.Laboratory Reactors
7.2.3.Industrial Reactors
7.2.4.Special Reactor Types and Processes
7.2.5.Simulation of Catalytic Reactors
7.3.Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration
7.3.1.Different Types of Deactivation
7.3.2.Catalyst Regeneration
7.3.3.Catalyst Reworking and Disposal
8.Industrial Application and Mechanisms of Selected Technically Relevant Reactions
8.1.Synthesis Gas and Hydrogen
8.2.Ammonia Synthesis
8.3.Methanol and Fischer – Tropsch Synthesis
8.3.1.Methanol Synthesis
8.3.2.Fischer – Tropsch Synthesis
8.4.Hydrocarbon Transformations
8.4.1.Selective Hydrocarbon Oxidation Reactions
8.4.1.1.Epoxidation of Ethylene and Propene
8.4.1.2.Ammoxidation of Hydrocarbons
8.4.2.Hydroprocessing Reactions
8.5.Environmental Catalysis
8.5.1.Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Stationary Sources
8.5.2.Automotive Exhaust Catalysis