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Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids

  1. Helmut Vogt1,
  2. Jan Balej2,
  3. John E. Bennett3,
  4. Peter Wintzer4,
  5. Saeed Akbar Sheikh5,
  6. Patrizio Gallone6,
  7. Subramanyan Vasudevan7,
  8. Kalle Pelin8

Published Online: 15 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a06_483.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Vogt, H., Balej, J., Bennett, J. E., Wintzer, P., Sheikh, S. A., Gallone, P., Vasudevan, S. and Pelin, K. 2010. Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Technische Fachhochschule Berlin, Berlin, Germany

  2. 2

    Ingenieurbüro für chemische Technik, Jülich, Germany

  3. 3

    Eltech Systems Corp., Fairport Harbor, Ohio, United States

  4. 4

    Cellulosefabrik Attisholz AG, Luterbach, Switzerland

  5. 5

    Davy McKee AG, Frankfurt, Germany

  6. 6

    Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy

  7. 7

    Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Electroinorganics Division, KaraiKudi, Tamilnadu, India

  8. 8

    Eka Chemicals AB, Akzo Nobel, Bohus, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2010

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Hypochlorous Acid
3.Solid Hypochlorites
3.1.Properties
3.2.Production
3.3.Quality Specifications
3.4.Uses
4.Hypochlorite Solutions
4.1.Chemical Production
4.1.1.From Chlorine
4.1.2.From Bleaching Powder
4.2.Electrosynthesis
4.2.1.Reaction Fundamentals
4.2.2.Industrial Cells
4.3.Storage
4.4.Uses
4.5.Economic Aspects
4.6.Plant Safety
5.Chlorine Dioxide
5.1.Introduction
5.2.Physical and Chemical Properties
5.3.Resources and Raw Materials
5.4.Production
5.4.1Chlorate-Based Processes Using Methanol as Reducing Agent
5.4.2Chlorate-Based Processes Using Hydrogen Peroxide as Reducing Agent
5.4.3Chlorate-Based Processes Using Sulfur Dioxide as Reducing Agent
5.4.4Chlorate-Based Processes Using Chloride as Reducing Agent
5.4.5Chlorite-Based Processes
5.4.6Electrochemical Methods
5.4.7Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Products
5.5Uses
5.5.1Pulp Bleaching
5.5.2Other Uses
5.6Quality Specifications
5.7Analysis
5.8Storage and Transportation
5.9Economic and Legal Aspects, Trade Names
5.10Environmental Protection
5.11Toxicology and Environmental Health
6.Sodium Chlorite
6.1.Properties
6.2.Production
6.3.Uses
7.Chloric Acid and Chlorates
7.1.Properties
7.2.Production Fundamentals
7.2.1.Chlorate-Generating Reactions
7.2.2.Loss Reactions
7.3.Industrial Electrosynthesis Systems
7.3.1.Electrolysis Cell Types
7.3.2.Electrodes
7.3.3.Operational Parameters
7.3.4.Brine Purification
7.4.Crystallization
7.5.Construction Materials
7.6.Environmental Protection
7.7.Quality Specifications
7.8.Storage, Transportation, and Safety
7.9.Uses
7.10.Economic Aspects
8.Perchloric Acid and Perchlorates
8.1.Physical and Chemical Properties
8.1.1.Perchloric Acid
8.1.2.Perchlorates
8.2.Production
8.2.1.Perchloric Acid
8.2.2.Perchlorates
8.3.Environmental Protection
8.4.Chemical Analysis
8.5.Storage, Transportation, and Safety
8.6.Uses
8.7.Economic Aspects
9.Toxicology and Occupational Health