Standard Article


  1. Jürg Kleinert-Zollinger1,
  2. Stephen T. Beckett2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a07_023.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Kleinert-Zollinger, J. and Beckett, S. T. 2006. Chocolate. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Lindt & Sprüngli AG (retired), Zürich, Switzerland

  2. 2

    Nestlé PTC York, York, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2006


The article contains sections titled:

3.Raw Materials
4.Fermentation and Drying
5.Composition of the Fermented Cocoa Bean
6.Chocolate Production
6.1.Cocoa Bean Processing
6.2.Preparation of Cocoa Powder and Cocoa Butter
6.3.Chocolate Production
6.3.1.Basic Chocolate Mass
6.3.2.Precrystallization (Tempering)
6.3.3.Processing Precrystallized Chocolate
7.Other Chocolate Processes
8.Packaging, Storage, Spoilage, Analysis
9.Economic Aspects

To be called chocolate a product must partially consist of ingredients derived from cocoa beans and strict regulations exist as to how the different chocolate types can be described on their packaging. This article looks at the history of drinking and solid eating chocolate, before describing the growing and processing of the cocoa beans themselves. The chocolate making procedure is then reviewed, followed by some of the methods used to process the liquid chocolate. As the main fat, cocoa butter, can solidify in six different forms, the crystallisation principles are particularly important. Finally the most important countries are compared with respect to their cocoa growing tonnage, chocolate manufacturing output and consumption per head of population.