Published Online: 15 JUL 2006
Copyright © 2002 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
How to Cite
Kleinert-Zollinger, J. and Beckett, S. T. 2006. Chocolate. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 JUL 2006
The article contains sections titled:
|4.||Fermentation and Drying|
|5.||Composition of the Fermented Cocoa Bean|
|6.1.||Cocoa Bean Processing|
|6.2.||Preparation of Cocoa Powder and Cocoa Butter|
|6.3.1.||Basic Chocolate Mass|
|6.3.3.||Processing Precrystallized Chocolate|
|7.||Other Chocolate Processes|
|8.||Packaging, Storage, Spoilage, Analysis|
To be called chocolate a product must partially consist of ingredients derived from cocoa beans and strict regulations exist as to how the different chocolate types can be described on their packaging. This article looks at the history of drinking and solid eating chocolate, before describing the growing and processing of the cocoa beans themselves. The chocolate making procedure is then reviewed, followed by some of the methods used to process the liquid chocolate. As the main fat, cocoa butter, can solidify in six different forms, the crystallisation principles are particularly important. Finally the most important countries are compared with respect to their cocoa growing tonnage, chocolate manufacturing output and consumption per head of population.