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  1. John C. Crelling1,
  2. Hans W. Hagemann2,
  3. Dieter H. Sauter3,
  4. Raja V. Ramani4,
  5. Werner Vogt5,
  6. Dieter Leininger6,
  7. Steffen Krzack7,
  8. Bernd Meyer7,
  9. Fred Orywal8,
  10. Rainer Reimert9,
  11. Bernhard Bonn10,
  12. Udo Bertmann11,
  13. Wolfgang Klose12,
  14. Günter Dach13

Published Online: 15 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a07_153.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Crelling, J. C., Hagemann, H. W., Sauter, D. H., Ramani, R. V., Vogt, W., Leininger, D., Krzack, S., Meyer, B., Orywal, F., Reimert, R., Bonn, B., Bertmann, U., Klose, W. and Dach, G. 2006. Coal. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, United States

  2. 2

    Technische Universität Aachen, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States

  5. 5

    Technische Universität Clausthal, Institut für Bergbau, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Bergbauforschung GmbH, Essen, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen, Freiberg, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    Heiligenhaus, Federal Republic of Germany

  9. 9

    Universität Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    Essen, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    Bergbauforschung GmbH, Essen, Federal Republic of Germany

  12. 12

    Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel, Institut für Thermische Energietechnik, Kassel, Federal Republic of Germany

  13. 13

    German Hard Coal Association, Essen, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 APR 2010)


The article contains sections titled:

1.Coal Petrology
1.1.Coal Characterization
1.2.The Maceral Concept
1.3.Maceral Types and Properties
3.1.Coal Seam Occurrence
3.2.Coal Seam Structures
3.3.Coal Seam Distribution
5.Chemical Structure of Coal
5.1.Characterization of Coals
5.1.1.Standard Analytical Methods
5.1.2.Laboratory and Bench-Scale Simulation Tests
5.1.3.Petrographic Studies
5.2.Structural Deductions from Analytical and Bench-Scale Data
5.3.Bonding of Elements in Coal
5.4.Structural Evidence of Coals
6.Coal Mining
6.1.General Considerations
6.2.Surface or Underground Mining
6.3.Coal Methods
6.4.Underground Coal Mining Methods
7.Coal Preparation
7.1.Hard Coal Preparation
7.1.1.Preliminary Treatment
7.1.2.Wet Treatment in Jigs in Dense-Media Separators by Flotation Cleaning Methods
7.1.4.Decantation and Thickening of the Process Water
7.1.5.Dosing and Blending
7.1.6.Removal of Pyritic Sulfur
7.1.7.Thermal Drying
7.2.Brown Coal Preparation
9.Coal Conversion (Uses)
9.2.Carbonization and Coking
9.3.Coal Liquefaction
9.3.1.Direct Liquefaction (Hydrogenation)
9.3.2.Indirect Liquefaction
9.4.Coal Gasification
9.5.Coal Combustion
9.6.Nonenergetic Use of Coal
9.6.1.Extraction of Montan Wax
9.6.2.Coal Tar Chemical Industry
9.6.3.Production of Carbonaceous Adsorbents
11.Coal Storage
12.Quality and Quality Testing
12.1.Chemical Analyses
12.2.Mineral Matter
12.3.Thermal Properties
13.Economic Aspects
13.1.World Outlook
13.2.Some Major Coal Producing Countries
13.2.2.United States
13.2.3.Former Soviet Union
13.2.6.Republic of South Africa